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- A -

See Asynchronous Transfer Mode Adaption Layer

Abbreviated Dialing
A feature that permits the calling party to dial the destination telephone number in fewer than normal digits. Abbreviated Dialing numbers must be set up in advance of their use. Speed Dialing is a typical example of Abbreviated Dialing.

The method, time, circuit, or facility used to enter the network.

Access Coordination
The design, ordering, installation, preservice testing, turn-up and maintenance on local access services.

Access Line
The circuit used to enter the communications network.

Account Codes
Also known as Project Codes or Bill-Back Codes. Account Codes are additional digits dialed by the calling party that provide information about the call. Typically used by hourly professionals (accountants, lawyers, etc.) to track and bill clients, projects, etc.

ACD - Automatic Call Distributor
A system designed to evenly distribute heavy incoming call traffic among multiple attendants.

ACNA - Access Carrier Name Abbreviation
(e.g. WorldCom's ACNA is "WTL") There can be multiple CICs per ACNA.

Address Mask
A 32-bit long mask used to select an IP address for subnet addressing. The mask selects the network portion of the IP address and one or more bits of the local LAN address.

Address Translation
The process of converting external addresses into standardized network addresses and vice versa. Facilities interconnection of multiple networks which each have their own address plan.

A person or organization that acts on behalf of another. In the telecommunications industry, Agents typically are independent individuals or companies that market the services of a carrier as if they were employees of that carrier.

Aggregate Discount
A discount applied to multiple services based on the total dollar value of those services.

An independent entity that brings several subscribers together to form a group that can obtain long-distance service at a reduced rate. Subscribers are billed by the original IXC. The aggregator only provides the initial set-up of the plan. He usually provides no service after that. Different than a reseller.

AIN - Advanced Intelligent Network
A dynamic database used in Signaling System 7. It supports advanced features by dynamically processing the call based upon trigger points throughout the call handling process and feature components defined for the originating or terminating number.

AIOD - Automatic Identified Outward Dialing
An option on a PBX that specifies the extension number, instead of the PBX number on outward calls (for internal billing).

Alarm indication signal usually all ones--F11111111. Also known as a Blue Alarm which signals that an upstream failure has occured.

A real-time indication or a signal of an abnormal situation or event. Usually includes a Priority or Severity Code.

Alternate Access
A form of local access where the provider is not the LEC, but is authorized or permitted to provide such service.

Alternate Access Carriers
Local exchange carriers in direct competition with the RBOCs. Normally found only in the larger metropolitan areas. Examples are Teleport and Metropolitan Fiber Systems.

Alternate Mark Inversion (AMI)
A line code used for T-1 and E-1 lines that has a 12.5% ones density minimum, and the one conditions of the signal alternate between positive and negative polarity.

Alternative Operator Services
Operator services provided by a company other than a LECRBOC or AT&T that is authorized to provide such service.

AMA Record
Automatic Message Accounting - See CDR

AMI - Alternate Mark Inversion
A line code used for T-1 and E-1 lines that has a 12.5% ones density minimum, and the one conditions of the signal alternate between positive and negative polarity.

Ancillary Charges
Charges for supplementary services comprised of optional features, which may consist of both non-recurring and monthly charges.

Ancillary Features
Subordinate, supplementary, subcomponent characteristics and capabilities. Marketing options of Products and Services.

ANI - See Automatic Number Identification
A telephone number.

ANSI - American National Standards Institute
A United States-based organization which develops standards and defines interfaces for telecommunications.

Answer Supervision
The off-hook indication sent back to the originating end when the called station answers.

See Area Of Service or Alternative Operator Service

Access Provider

The specifications of a system and how its subcomponents interconnect, interact and cooperate. Architectures are often described in multiple levels of abstraction from low-level physical to higher-level logical application and end-user views.

Area Code Routing
Route calls based on the originating ANI NPA (area code). See NPA-NXX Routing.

Area of Service - AOS
The geographical area supported by a communication service. For 800 numbers, if AOS is "CC", it is using Complex Call routing.

Automatic Room Identification (Hotel/Motel room number)

ARP - Address Resolution Protocol under TCP/IP
Used to dynamically bind a high level IP address to a low-level physical hardware address. ARP is limited to a single physical network that supports hardware broadcasting.

ASR - Access Service Request
A document (or data transaction) sent to the LEC to order the local access portion of a circuit.

Areas of Service State (list)

Asynchronous (i.e. Not Synchronous)
A form of concurrent input and output communication transmission with no timing relationship between the two signals. Slower-speed asynchronous transmission requires start and stop bits to avoid a dependency on timing clocks (10 bits to send on 8-bit byte). (Contrast with Synchronous)

Asynchronous Transfer Mode - ATM
An international ISDN high-speed, high-volume, packet-switching transmission protocol standard. ATM uses short, uniform, 53-byte cells to divide data into efficient, manageable packets for ultrafast switching through a high-performance communications network. The 53-byte cells contain 5-byte destination address headers and 48 data bytes. ATM is the first packet-switched technology designed from the ground up to support integrated voice, video, and data communication applications. It is well-suited to high-speed WAN transmission bursts. ATM currently accommodates transmission speeds from 64 Kbps to 622 Mbps. ATM may support gigabit speeds in the future.

Asynchronous Transfer Mode Adaptation Layer - AAL
A series of protocols enabling ATM to be made compatible with virtually all of the commonly used standards for voice, data, image and video.

ATM - See Asynchronous Transfer Mode
(Most common usage of ATM within telecommunications)

A loss of signal strength in a lightwave, electrical or radio signal usually related to the distance the signal must travel (e.g. fiber optic transmission must be regenerated approx. every 30 miles). Fiber optic attenuation is caused by transparency of the fiber, bending the fiber at too small of a radius, nicks in the fiber, splices, poor fiber terminals, FOTs, etc.EDOA), Electrical attenuation is caused by the resistance of the conductor, poor (corroded) connections, poor shielding, induction, RFI, etc. Radio signal attenuation may be due to atmospheric conditions, sun spots, antenna design / positioning, obstacles, etc.

AuthCode - Authorization Code
A number used for security purposes to gain access to an Interexchange Carrier's network. Authorization codes are inherently required for all Feature Group-A and Feature Group- B Circuits without ANI reporting. Authorization codes are also required for Travel Service and Cut-Through capabilities on Feature Group-Dcircuits.

Automatic Number Identification
Originating Number
(1) The number associated with the telephone station(s) from which switched calls are originated (or terminated).
(2) A software feature associated with Feature Group D (and optional on Feature Group B) circuits. ANI provides the originating local telephone number of the calling party. This information is transmitted as part of the digit stream in the signalling protocol, and included in the Call Detail Record for billing purposes.
(3) ANI may also be used to refer to any phone number.

Automatic Ring Down (ARD)
A private line connecting a station instrument in one location to a station instrument in a distant location with automatic two-way signaling. The automatic two-way signaling used on these circuits causes the station instrument on one end of the circuit to ring when the station instrument on the other end goes off-hook. This circuit is sometimes called a "hot-line" because urgent communications are typically associated with this service. ARD circuits are commonly used in the financial industry. May also have one way signaling. Station "A" rings Station "B" when Station "A" goes off hook, but Station "B" cannot ring Station "A".

- B -

B8ZS - Bipolar with eight zero substitution
Clear channel line coding option on DS-1 service allows the DS-1 user to obtain greater throughput and functionality from their DS-1 facilities. The use of B8ZS allows users to transmit data at a rate of 64 Kbps per DS-0, achieving what is referred to as a clear channel. Applied against all 24 DS-Os on a DS-1, the effective data throughput of the DS-1 facility is increased with B8ZS from 1.344 Mbps to 1.536 Mbps, a 14% increase in throughput. CSUs with B8ZS support are required on both ends of the user's circuit.

Baby Bells - See RBOC

Network of broadband connections between switches.

A release form that authorizes a customer's long-distance phone service to be switched to (another) long-distance carrier, or reseller.

BAN - Billing Account Number
Used by telephone companies to designate a billing account, i.e., a customer or customer location that receives a bill. A customer may have any number of BANs.

Banded Rates
Tariffed rates which may be changed by the carrier within a specified range. Frequently, state commissions require notice to the commission prior to each change. Banded rates are being used less frequently today.

A measure of the communication capacity or data transmission rate of a Circuit. The total frequency spectrum (in Hertz - cycles per second) that is allocated or available to a channel, or the amount of data that can be carried (in bits per second) by a channel.

Base Rate
The nondiscounted "per minute" charge for Measured Service.

Basic Rate Interface (BRI)
ISDN offering that allows 2 64kbps and 1 16kbps channels to be carried over 1 typical single pair of copper wires. This is the type of service that would be used to connect a small branch or home office to a remote network. Through the use of BONDING (Bandwidth on Demand) the two 64kbps channels can be combined to create more bandwidth as it becomes necessary.

Batch Oriented
A system that groups input into "batches" and processes them periodically (rather than in real-time). (Contrast with Event Driven)

Baud (older term being replaced by bps - bits per second)
The number of signaling elements that can be transmitted per second on a circuit. e.g. When a modem is used to send digital information on an analog line, baud refers to the speed that the circuit can change from the tone used to represent a binary zero to the tone used to represent a binary one (or vice versa). In an average data stream, one baud is roughly equivalent to one bit per second on a digital transmission circuit.

BCC - Bellcore Client Company

Bell Customer Code
A three-digit numeric code, appended to the end of the Main Billing Telephone Number, that is used by Local Exchange Carriers to provide unique identification of customers.

Bell Operating Company - BOC
The local (or regional) telephone company that owns and operates lines to customer locations and Class 5 Central Office Switches. BOCs have connections to other COs, Tandem (Class 4 Toll) offices and may connect directly to IECs like WorldCom, AT&T, MCI, Sprint, etc. BOC may refer to the nineteen Bell Operating Companies that are owned by the seven RHCs (Regional Holding Companies) (not including Cincinnati Bell or Southern New England Telephone). The BOC role was originally defined by the 1982 Modified Final Judgement that specified the terms of the AT&T Divestiture). For Example, the three BOCs: Mountain Bell, Northwestern Bell and Pacific Northwest Bell are owned by the U.S. West RHC. Each BOC may service more than one LATA, but BOCs are generally constrained from providing long distance service between LATAs.

See Bit Error Rate

Beta Test
A secondary product test performed by a selected set of "early support" end user(s) or customer(s) (under special contract) prior to the general availability of the product.

Notice of charges for products and services rendered

Billing Account Number - BAN
Used by telephone companies to designate a customer or customer location that will be billed. A single customer may have multiple billing accounts.

A billing option associated with Operator Assisted calls that allows the calling party to bill a call to their hotel room. With this option, the carrier is required to notify the hotel, upon completion of the call, of the time and charges.

Satellite (informal slang)

BICSI - Building Industries Consulting Service International
A non-profit professional association for those engaged in voice\data cable plant design and installation. Administers the Registered Communications Distribution Designer (RCDD) and LAN Specialist certifications and provides related training.

BISDN- B-ISDN - Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (See ISDN)
A packet switching technique which uses packets of fixed length, resulting in lower processing and higher speeds. Also see ATM or Cell Relay

The smallest amount of information that can be transmitted. In binary digital transmission, a bit has one of two values: 0 or 1. A combination of bits can indicate an alphabetic character, a numeric digit, or perform a signaling, switching or other function.

Bit Error Rate - BER
The rate at which errors occur in a stream of transmitted data. The BER may be expressed in terms of a percentage of error-free seconds or as a percentage of error-free bits.

Block Calls
Prevent calls from completing to the requested destination. May be due to network problems (outage, overload, etc.), or by customer request (e.g. block calls from-or-to certain NPAs, NXXs, States, LATAs, etc.).

BOC - See Bell Operating Company

An interactive signal that prompts the originating end user to enter additional information. For example: 10555 Bong (Enter Destination) Bong (Enter Billing information)

A system capacity constraint that may reduce traffic during peak load conditions.

bps - bits per second (upper/lower case is significant)

Bps - (8-bit) bytes per second

BRI - Basic Rate Interface (ISDN)
3 digital signals over a single pair of copper wires: 2 voice (B) channels and 1 signalling (D) channel. (e.g. voice and fax on a single pair of wires)

A LAN internetworking device that filters and passes data between LANs based on Layer 2 (MAC layer) information. Bridges do not use any routing algorithms. (Compare Router. Contrast Gateway - dissimilar protocols)

A high-capacity communications Circuit/path. It usually implies a speed greater than 1.544Mbps. (Contrast with Wideband and Narrowband)

A term used by some vendors, normally referring to a bridge also having some of the characteristics of a router.

BTN - Billing Telephone Number
The phone number associated, for billing purposes, with the Working Phone Number.

Bursty -- Batchy
Communications characterized by high volumes of data transmitted intermittently, as opposed to steady-stream data.

Butt-set, butt-in, buttinski
Hand-carried test telephone used to monitor, dial, and talk on conventional analog telephone lines. So named because the craft person could clip onto a pair and "butt in" to a conversation.

Access an IEC other than the customer's Equal Access carrier by dialing 10+CIC Code. (e.g. Bypass to WorldCom by dialing "10555"). See Walkthrough, CIC Code

Bypass Service
The use of facilities other than those of the LEC (Facilities Bypass) or the use of operating telephone company private lines (Service Bypass) to connect a customer premise to a PoP or another customer premise.

- C -

Cable Cut
Service outage caused by cutting or damaging a cable.

The point where a marine cable connects to terrestrial facilities.

A completed switched communication (at a specified bandwidth) between two stations on a network. A call is originated by a "calling party", "calling station" or "caller". The destination or termination of a call is the "called party", "called station(s)" or "destination node" on the network.

Call Detail Record - CDR

An accounting record produced by Switches to track Call Type, Time, Duration, Facilities used, Originator, Destination, etc. CDRs are used for customer billing, rate determination, network monitoring, and facility capacity planning. CDRs represent unrated calls (to be processed by Rating) in contrast to Tolls, which are rated calls.

Call Duration
The period of time that begins with Answer Supervision (destination off hook) and ends when the call is terminated.

Call Processing Data - CPR
Information sent to SMS to define specific 800 service features, such as call routing by: time of day, day of week, state of call origination, load balancing, etc.

Call Routing Tree
A graphical display of complex call routing decision logic.

Call Tree
A graphical display of computer function Call sequence. Documents function usage. Used for change impact analysis.

Call Type
(e.g. 1+, 0+, 800, etc.)

Called Station - Also known as Called Party Destination Node On The Network

The telephone number to which a call is directed or terminated.

Calling Card
A telecommunication credit card with an AuthCode for using a long distance carrier when the customer is away from their home or office (ANI).

Calling Station - Also known as Calling Party - Origination Node On The Network
The telephone number or ANI that initiates a call.

CAP-See Competitive Access Provider Capacity

The highest possible (reliable) transmission speed that can be carried on a channel, circuit or piece of equipment. Capacity may be expressed as raw speed or net throughput.

Card Issuer Identifier Code - CIID - (pronounced "sid")
A code issued with certain calling cards. AT&T's CIID cards cannot be used by other interexchange carriers but can be used by LECs.

A telecommunications provider which owns switch equipment.

Carrier Circuit
A higher level circuit (DS-1, DS-3, Transmission System, etc.) that has been designed to carry lower-level circuits (DS-0, DS-1).

Carrier Facility Assignment - CFA
An identifier for the Telco network point where an IEC connects.

Carrier Identification Code - CIC
A three digit number used with Feature Groups B and D to access a particular IEC's switched services from a local exchange line. One or more CIC codes are assigned to each carrier. (i.e. there may be multiple CICs per ACNA). See Bypass

Carrier Split
Use of 800 service call routing features to divide 800 calls between two or more IECs. Split may be by % allocation, origination NPA, Time of Day, etc.

Casual Calling
Allow any ANI (including undefined ANIs) to access a given carrier. For example, if the originator is calling from a non-coin phone, they may dial 10555+destination number and have the call routed through WorldCom and billed to the originating phone number.

Casual Customer
Any person or organization that dials any CIC Code. (Not necessary to presubscribe to the carrier.)

CATV -- Cable Television - Community Antenna Television
A community television system, served by cable and connected to a common (set of ) antenna(s). 1994 Federal legislation may allow them to compete with LECs for telephone service (on the Information Superhighway).

CBUD - Call Before U Dig
Operational management system for protection of fiber facilities. May have electronic geographic maps of states, counties and city streets where the carrier has buried facilities, upon which reported construction activities are automatically mapped. Human technicians verify that the activities do not pose a danger to the facilities, or dispatch on-site technicians when facilities may be at risk.

CCITT - Consultant Committee on International Telephone and Telegraph

An international organization which develops standards and defines interfaces for telecommunications. (now known as ITU).

1) Common Channel Signaling One Hundred (Roman Numeral C) Calling Seconds
2) A standard unit of traffic, used in communications engineering. (See Erlang)

See Call Detail Record

1) Packet switching information grouped in units of uniform size. Cells are fixed-length packets. (e.g. ATM 53-byte cells)
2) A small group acting as a unit in a larger organization (e.g. one of the separate geographical areas covered by
a radio transceiver antenna in a multi-antenna cellular phone system, a spreadsheet cell, a biological cell, etc.).

Cell Relay
Packet switching technique which uses packets of fixed length, resulting in lower processing speeds. Also known as BISDN and ATM.

Cellular Service Type
Type 1 - ANI only identifies the mobile cellular system, Type 2 - ANI identifies the mobile DN placing the call, but does not necessarily identify the true call point of origin, Roaming - Subscriber is "roaming" in another cellular network. Roaming ANI identifies the mobile DN placing the call, but does not necessarily identify the true forwarded-call origin.

Central Office - CO
One local Class 5 Switch with lines to customer locations. (Usually less than 100,000 telephone lines per Central Office.) COs are usually owned and operated by LECs or BOCs. COs have connections to Tandem (Class 4 Toll Offices) and often connect directly to other COs and IECs like WorldCom, AT&T, MCI, Sprint, etc. A CO is a major equipment center designed to serve the communications traffic of a specific geographic area. CO coordinates are used in mileage calculations for local and interexchange service rates. A Non-Conforming CO is one that does not (yet) support Equal Access.

A service that is functionally similar to a customer-premise PBX, but provided by means of equipment located in a Central Office.

CEPT - Conference on European Post and Telegraph
A European organization which develops standards and defines interfaces for telecommunications.

See Carrier Facility Assignment

CGA - Carrier Group Alarm
A major alarm condition for a T1 or E1 multiplexer or DACS frame which results in channels being taken out of service. Normally a RED, YELLOW, or AIS condition.

A telecommunications path (pipe) of a specific capacity (speed) between two locations in a network. (See DS-0 through DS-4)

Channel Bank

A multiplexor that merges 24 voice and/or data circuits into a single T1 (DS-1) digital communication format.

Channel Extender
A device that increases the distance in which a mainframe can communicate with other mainframes and input / output devices (such as remote terminals, tape drives, high-speed printers, etc.).

Channel Extension / Channel Networking (Service)
Interfaces that allow high-speed computers to communicate with remote devices at local channel speeds (over T1/T3 lines).

Channel Service Unit / Data Service Unit - CSU / DSU

Manages digital transmission, monitors signals for problems. Responds to Central Office commands. It performs many of the functions that modems do, but it does not have to convert digital signals to/from analog, since the end device and the underlying transmission facility are both digital.

Channel Termination
The equipment (multiplexer, channelizer, etc.) required to provide a connection point for one channel. For dedicated circuits, there is a recurring charge rate element for each channel termination.

To subdivide (or break out) a broadband transmission system into multiple communication channels.

See Carrier Identification Code (WorldCom = "555")

CIID - (pronounced "sid")
See Card Issuer Identifier Code

CIM - Computer Integrated Manufacturing
See Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing

CIR - Committed Information Rate

In a frame relay network, each PVC is assigned a Committed Information Rate, measured in bits per second. The CIR represents the average capacity that the Port Connection should allocate to the PVC. This rate should be consistent with the expected average traffic volume between the two sites that the PVC connects. The CIR that is assigned to a PVC cannot exceed the speed of either the originating or terminating Port Connection.

A switched or dedicated communications path with a specified bandwidth (transmission speed/capacity).

Circuit Media Wire Cables
Two Wire (not twisted), Twisted Pairs (Radio Frequency Interference Cancelling), Shielded Coaxial Cable, Terrestrial Microwave, Satellite Microwave, Fiber Optic.

Circuit Switching
A switching method where a dedicated path is set up between the transmitter and receiver. The connection is transparent, meaning that the switches do not try to interpret the data.

City Pair
Two cities between which an IEC offers long-distance service. When ordering a new dedicated circuit or trunk group, "city pair" NPA/NXXs are used to determine the switch location.

Class 3 - IEC - Interexchange Carrier
Hierarchical interconnection for Class 4 and optional Class 5 Switches

Class 4 - Tandem Office - Toll Office
Interconnection for Class 5 Switches and long distance via Class 3 IECs. Optional direct connection to higher volume Class 4 sites. A Class 4 may also serve as a Class 5 CO.

Class 5 - Central Office -End Office
Connection to local Customer Premise Equipment and local switching. Capacity typically is up to 100,000 lines, 1 to 10 NXX.

Class of Service - COS

A special limitation on what numbers can and cannot be called. International, 809, 809 + Canada, 48 contiguous states, etc.

Client/Server - C/S

A distributed computing model in which clients request data and processing from servers. Servers usually have higher capacity than clients (but not necessarily). Client/Server exploits less expensive hardware than host-based computing, but C/S application design and resource management must be more sophisticated. See Peer-To-Peer

CLLI (pronounced "silly") - Common Location Language Identifier

A unique identifier assigned to LEC End Offices and Tandem (Class 4 switch) Toll Offices groups. The CLLI code is the designation for a central office, or the area served by a CO. (CLLI is a BellCore standard) Example: "SNANTXFRCGO". Digits 5 & 6 are the state code, digits 7 & 8 are the CO name, digits 9 through 11 specify equipment type.

Closed End
The end of a line (such as a WATS 800 or foreign exchange line) from which all calls are directed to or from a single point. Private lines normally have two closed ends.


SCP 800 Number Translation Database (To POTS)

See Central Office

Customer Owned and Maintained Equipment.

Close Of Business (completed by end of business day)

Customer Owned Coin Operated Telephone

CODEC - enCOde/DECode
A device that converts (encodes) analog signals into a form for transmission on a digital circuit. The digital signal is then decoded back to analog at the receiving end of the transmission link. Codecs allow voice and video transmission over digital links. Codecs may also support signal compression. (Contrast modem)

Coin Phone

A coin-operated pay phone with restricted access to some services (e.g. International calling). Coin phones have subclasses of Public, Semi Public, and Private.

A call that is paid for by the receiving/destination phone number. Requires approval/authorization of the person being called.

The placement of in-service customer telecommunications equipment at a carrier's central office, point of presence or other network location.

Commercial Customer
A company that purchases products and service primarily for their own use.

Common Carrier
A carrier that holds itself out as serving the public (or a segment thereof) indifferently (i.e., without regard to the identity of the customer and without undue discrimination). Common carriers may vary rates based on special considerations and may in fact serve only a small fraction of the general public.

Communication Link

A system of hardware and software connecting two end users.

Competitive Telecommunications Association - CompTel
An industry association of IECs that does not include AT&T, MCI or Sprint, but does include WorldCom and most medium-sized communications carriers. CompTel may also refer to one of the organization's conventions.

Competitive Access Provider - CAP
Access services provided by a company other than a LEC, RBOC, or AT&T that is authorized to provide such service.

Compression /Decompression

A method of encoding/decoding signals that allows transmission (or storage) of more information than the media would otherwise be able to support. (e.g. The "Stacker" software product more than doubles the storage capacity of a PC magnetic disk drive.) Both compression and decompression require processing capacity, but with many products, the time is not noticeable.


See Competitive Telecommunications Association

Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing -CAD/CAM

CAD - A computer application using software and high-resolution graphics for drafting, design and similar engineering functions.
CAM - Computer-controlled manufacturing. When CAD is connected with CAM it is sometimes called CIM.
CIM - Computer Integrated Manufacturing. CIM allows efficient production of small quantities of custom-designed equipment. When CAD and CAM are distributed over a geographical area, significant communication network capacity may be required.

Computer Telephony Integration - CTI

The integration of telephony function with computer applications.

1. The relative arrangement, options, or connection pattern of a system and its subcomponent parts/objects.
2. The process of defining an appropriate set of collaborating hardware and software objects to solve a particular problem.

A Point-To-Point Dedicated or Switched communication path.

Construction and Maintenance Agreement - CMA - C&MA
An agreement for the ownership, construction and maintenance of expensive facilities (such as transoceanic cables and related equipment). Such agreements are usually between multiple carriers, but may be between a carrier and a government.

A legally-binding agreement between a vendor and a customer to provide Products, Services or Features in a specified quantity and quality, for a specified price, during a specified period of time.

Contract Carriage

The provision of regulated service pursuant to individually negotiated contracts, instead of through public tariffs.

Contract Tariffs
Services and rates based on contracts negotiated with individual customers, but theoretically available to all customers. AT&T has filed several hundred contract tariffs.

CONUS-CONtiguous United States

The 48 contiguous U.S. states. Used primarily to designate the operating range or authorization of a satellite or radio facility.

Coordinates Vertical and Horizontal (V&H)

Grid points used to determine straight-line mileage between locations such as PoP, CO, etc.

COPT - Coin Operated Pay Telephone Correspondent
A local service provider in a country which exchanges traffic with a carrier. For example, British Telecommunication or Mercury could be the U.K. correspondent of a U.S. carrier.

See Class Of Service

Country Code
Two or three digit codes used for International calls outside of the North American Numbering Plan area codes. Dial: 011 + country code + city code + local phone number) (e.g. "011 + 91 + 22 + 123- 4567" 91 = India, 22 = Bombay)

See Customer Premise Equipment

See Commercial Private Line

Customer Record (SMS)

Conduit, Raceway, Equipment Ducts, and FACilitieS. Generic collective term for infrastructure used in cabling.

Cross Connect
A point in a network where a circuit is connected from one facility to another by cabling between the equipment.

Calling Seconds (a measure of communication traffic)

See Client /Server

CSB - Client Support Bulletin
NASC information to RespOrgs about NPA splits, etc.

CSPDN - Circuit Switched Public Data Network
Circiut oriented public network usually based on X.25.

See Channel Service Unit - Data Service Unit

See Computer Telephony Integration

An individual person or organization that purchases (orders, requests, or may be billed for) service. A customer may be related to an entity that pays for products. For example, a subsidiary company may have its own customer identification even though the parent company pays all charges. A billable customer may be someone that merely accepts an operator service call or a casual customer that dials a CIC code (like 10555) without presubscribing. A service provider or an agent may act as (or on behalf of) a customer. (Contrast with End User)

Customer Contact Name - SMS NUS NCON field
The designated person to notify as order status changes, etc. (Customer Contact Telephone Number is in NUS NPHONE)

Customer Premise
The local facility where the circuit terminates.

Customer Premise Equipment - CPE
Communications equipment (such as PBX switches, origination/termination adapters, multiplexers, modems, codecs, telephones, computers, etc. - but not including carrier lines) at the customer's location that connects to carriers' Products and Services. CPE may be COAM or provided by the carrier. Primary CPE suppliers include: AT&T, Northern Telcom, NEC, Phillips, Siemens, Erickson, etc.

Customer Record Information System - CRIS (pronounced "chris")
A system used by many LECs to maintain customer records.

Customer Type
Classification of customer that defines procedural rules and the availability of products, services, features and options (e.g. residential, commercial, reseller, carrier, etc.)

The exact date/time that a phone number, circuit, etc. is scheduled to be (or was) moved from one implementation (carrier, etc.) to another. (e.g. moving an 800 number from MCI to WorldCom).

Cut-Through Dialing
"10"+CIC+" #" followed by an AuthCode for IntraLATA calls.

Cycle - A recurring series of events
(e.g. Business Cycle, System Life Cycle, etc.)

- D -

D-4 (or Super Frame SF)
A data transmission format comprised of 12 frames of 192 bits each. A single 193rd bit is used for link control and error checking. As an industry standard, D4, also known as SF, has been superseded by the Extended Super Frame (ESF) format. However because ESF is not backward compatible and there continues to be a large installed base of channel banks and DS-1 Multiplexers that are based upon D4, it is still the default private line formatting technique.

D-4 Channel Bank
A multiplexer used to convert 24 voice grade analog or data channels into a DS-1. The D-4 is not equipped for software-controlled provisioning or remote circuit testing.

DA - Directory Assistance
Phone Number Lookup Service

DACS - Digital Access Cross-Connect System
A digital switching facility interconnection device. A DACS allows reconfiguration of lower levels of capacity within a circuit without the need for manual changes in the interconnections. A DACS is similar to a Mux, but a DACS permits software changes which would require physical changes with a MUX.

DAL - Dedicated Access Line
A non-switched circuit from the customer to a carrier.

Dark Fiber
An inactive fiber-optic strand without electronics or optronics, i.e., no connected transmitters, receivers, regenerators, etc. (See also-Dry Fiber)

A multiuse collection of information (on a computer). Often supports random access selectivity (via "Keys") and multiple "Views" or levels of abstraction of the underlying data.

Data Circuits
Communication links that are optimized for digital transmission of computer information.

Day of Week Routing
Route calls based on day of week (e.g. single weekday, list of week days, range of weekdays or combinations).

Day of Year Routing
Route calls based on month/day of the year (e.g. single day, list of days, range of days or combination).

Db - See Decibel

DBMS - Data Base Management System

DCE - Data Communications Equipment

DCS - Digital Cross-Connect System (See DACS)

Digital European Cordless Telecommunications
A wireless standard for communications, operating at 1,88-1,9 GHz. The system is developed for high traffic rates and small cells. Applications are private, residential and business telephone and data transmissions.

DDD - Direct Distance Dialing
Any switched telecommunication service (like 1+, 0++, etc.) that allows a call originator to place long distance calls directly to telephones outside the local service area without an operator.

DDS - Digital Data Service
A digital data communication circuit (2.4, 4.8, 9.6 or 56K bps)

DE - Discard Eligible
Frame relay frame indicator that identifies that the frame may be discarded in the case of network congestion.

A request to terminate service (or the process of terminating service)

DECCO - See Defense Commercial Communications Office

Decibel - Db - db
A unit of power (sound, electrical or optical) increase (amplification) or loss (attenuation) that is proportional to the exponential increase or decrease in power.

Dedicated Line
A private line leased from a telecommunications carrier.

Default Carrier
Your regular Dial-1 carrier. Call 1-700-555-4141 to find your default carrier.

Defense Commercial Communications Office - DECCO
A Department of Defense organization that procures communications circuits from carriers for use by the military and certain other federal agencies.

Demarcation Point - Demarc
A point (such as a jack or cross-connect panel) at which ownership or responsibility for operating and maintaining facilities passes from one party to another.

Denied-Originating Class
Terminating Only/Answer Only

Design Layout Record
Contains the layout for the local portion of a circuit at a particular location.

To Place A Call On A Switched Network. The term "dial" is obsolete - based on rotary dial phones and electromechanical relay switches (which are nearly non-existent in modern telephone systems.) Touch Tone service recognizes dual tones that are generated as each telephone key is pressed. Where Touch Tone service is not available, telephones and switches electronically "pulse" signals that emulate the older rotary dial telephones. The terms "place" a call or "originate" a call are more accurate than "dial".

Dial Tone
Ready To Place/Originate A Call. When the off hook indication is received at a central office, a dial tone signal is sent to the originating caller on a switched network to indicate that the switch is ready to accept a number.

Dialed Number Identification Service - DNIS
An optional feature on dedicated access lines (DALs). DNIS delivers identifying digits (up to 14 digits) that distinguing incoming calls. This allows CPE to identify which number was dialed when multiple numbers terminate on the same trunk group.

Equipment that pulses out a standard dial protocol signal.

DID - See Direct Inward Dialing

A device or method that uses discrete variations in voltage, frequency, amplitude, location, etc. to encode, process, or carry binary (zero or one) signals for sound, video, computer data or other information. For example, a digital clock displays the time as discrete numeric values, rather than angular displacement of analog hands. Digital communications technology generally permits higher speeds of transmission with a lower error rate than can be achieved with analog technology. When analog signals are received and amplified at each repeater station, any noise is also amplified. A digital signal, however, is detected and regenerated (not amplified). Unlike amplification, any noise (less than a valid signal) is eliminated by digital regeneration.

Digit Stream
The switch signalling protocol that contains information such as information digits, destination number, originating ANI, etc. The digit stream is defined by Bellcore standards.

Dim Fiber
A fiber optic system in which the carrier provides regenerators, but does not originate the optical signals at one-or-both ends.

Direct Inward Dialing - DID
A PBX or Centrex optional feature that permits outside calls to be placed directly to a station line without use of an operator.

Direct Inward System Access - DISA
The ability to access a PBX from an outside telephone number. For example, a caller might dial an assigned number, input a security code and then use the PBX to place a long distance call.

Directory Assistance - DA
An information service whereby operators assist customers in obtaining the telephone number(s) they wish to call.

DISA - See Direct Inward System Access

Call termination and the information associated with it such as time of day, who disconnected (originator, destination, etc.)

Special pricing flexibility used to encourage increased use of products, or to improve competitive marketing.

A change (other than attenuation or noise) in the characteristics of a signal due to the distance of transmission or equipment problems or inefficiencies.

Distributed Network Computing - DNC
Separation of the elements of an application into subcomponent objects that can be implemented on multiple collaborative computers on a common network. Objects are designed to optimize local processing and storage capabilities and to minimize the slower overhead of remote communication.

DLCI - Data Link Connection Identifier
A frame relay header field that identifies the destination of the packet.

DLR - See Design Layout Record

Switch Profile Loading. Northern Telecom DMS-250 process for performing Network Database Updates. Defines the network configuration, valid user ANIs, alternate routing tables, service classes, etc.

Northern Telcom (NTI) Programmable Communication Switch. Commonly used in the telecommunication industry.

DN - Directory Number
Usually 7 or 10 digits.

DNIC - Data Network Identification Code
A four digit number used to identify public data networks.

DNIS - See Dialed Number Identification Service

Dominant Carrier
A carrier with marketing power and the ability to control overall price levels. LECs and AT&T, are considered dominant.

Drag and Drop
A GUI concept that allows one screen object to be selected and passed as input to another screen object (icon).

Drop and Insert
The ability to add and remove lower-level capacity from a higher-level circuit at an equipment location. Lower-level capacity may be interconnected at an intermediate point of a higher-capacity circuit. For example, a Chicago to Los Angeles DS-3 might have DS-1 level drop and insert capability at Salt Lake City. this would provide DS-1 service from Los Angeles to Salt Lake and from Salt Lake to Chicago.

DS - Digital System

DS-0 (Facility)
The base unit of digital transmission capacity. 1 communication channel = 1 simultaneous voice grade equivalent with a communication capacity of 64 thousand bits per second (64Kbps).

DS-1 (Facility)
T1- The equivalent of 24 multiplexed voice grade channels (DS-0s). 1.544 million bits per second (1.5Mbps).

DS-2 (Facility)
T2 - The equivalent of 4 multiplexed T1 channels. 6.312 million bits per second (6.3Mbps).

DS-3 (Facility)
T3 - The equivalent of 28 multiplexed T1 channels. 44.736 million bits per second (45Mbps).

DS-4 (Facility)
T4 - The equivalent of 6 multiplexed T-3 channels. 274.176 million bits per second (274Mbps).

DSU - Digital Service Unit
A network interface device between the CSU and the customer's DTE. Usually associated with a CSU, the DSU has a V.35, RS232, RS449, or other interface to the customer equipment. The DSU is also a multiplexer for FT1 circuits.

DTE - Data Terminal Equipment

DTMF - Dial Tone Multi Frequency

The length of a call (switched communication connection) or the effective length of a Contract, Product Offering, etc.

- E -

A digital circuit with standardized characteristics that operates at 2.048 Mbps. This standard is widely used in Europe and in submarine cables as the rough equivalent of a DS-1 (E1 provides thirty 64 Kbps channels - six more than a DS-1).

A digital circuit with standardized characteristics that operates at 34 Mbps. This standard is widely used in Europe for intercarrier communications as the rough equivalent of a DS-3.

Earth Station
A satellite communications facility (a satellite dish and associated equipment) located on the earth's surface (or on a building, ship or other mobile vehicle).

Echo Cancellation
A technique used with voice circuits to isolate and filter unwanted signal energy which accompanies analog transmissions.

Echo Canceller
A circuit feature that turns off the incoming signal while one end of the call is talking (to avoid an annoying long distance echo). It must be disabled for Full Duplex (simultaneous 2-way calls). An echo canceller does not turn off the voice channel, as stated, but electronically removes unwanted echo, while maintaining a full-duplex channel. An echo suppressor disables the channel in one direction or the other, depending on who is talking. Echo cancellers must be disabled for some types of high speed modems calls, and must also be disabled for "clear channel" data calls, such as ISDN.

EDI - Electronic Data Interchange
An industry standard (ANSI X12, X.400) for direct computer-to-computer information exchange.

EDOA - See Erbium-Doped Optical Amplifier

EFS - Error Free Seconds

The method, time, circuit, or facility used to exit the network at the call destination.

EIA - Electrical Industries Association

Email - Electronic Mail service (generic term)

End Office - See Central Office
Class 5 Central Office Switch owned and operated by a LEC.

End-To-End Digital Transmission
All circuit elements are digital. No modems are used to convert digital signals to analog at any point.

End-To-End Service
Interexchange service that extends from one customer premise to another customer premise. It usually consists of the local loops on each end and an IEC leg in the middle.

End User
A person who uses (but does not necessarily pay for) products and services, e.g. a person called by a paying customer. Users are usually people, but could also be computers, objects, switches or other types of computer systems or communication equipment.

The process or organization responsible for the skillful design, construction, maintenance and enhancement of complex or sophisticated systems of hardware, software, processes, etc.

Enhanced Services
Services using network facilities and computer processing that:
(1) act on the format, content, code, protocol or similar aspects of transmitted information;
(2) provide additional or restructured information; or
(3) involve subscriber interaction with stored data.

Entrance Facility
A high-capacity circuit (such as DDS, DS-1 or DS-3), between the LEC's Central Office and the IEC's Point of Presence to support a customer's dedicated local access. There is a recurring charge rate element for each entrance facility.

Entry Clerk
A computer system end user responsible for transcribing raw data into a machine-readable form.

Enumeration List
A finite collection that identifies all possible (allowable) values for a variable, field, data attribute, object type, etc.

Equal Access
(AT&T Divestiture - 1982 Modified Final Judgement) The provision of one-plus capability to interLATA competitors of AT&T. Customers should be able to reach the carrier of their choice by dialing 1+ the long-distance number. The MFJ and the FCC require local exchange carriers to provide equal access (most central offices now have this capability). Equal Access may also refer to a more generic concept under which the BOCs must provide access services to AT&T's competitors that are equivalent to those provided to AT&T.

Equal Charge Rule
A rule contained in the 1982 MFJ which required BOCs to charge access rates that do not vary with the volume of traffic.

Erbium-Doped Optical Amplifier - EDOA
High-performance optical fiber amplifiers capable of reducing the number of regenerators needed over a span of fiber optic cable.

Erlang - Traffic Unit - (1 Erlang = 3600 Calling Seconds = 36 CCS)
An international unit of average traffic on a facility during a period of time (usually a busy hour). The number of erlangs is the ratio of the time the facility is occupied (continuously or cumulatively) to the time the facility is available.

Error-free Seconds
A measure of the quality of the signal being transmitted. It is a percentage representing the total amount of time over a 24-hour period that the signal contained bit errors and it is calculated using a test pattern defined in CCITT Recommendation 0.151.

ES/9000 - Enterprise System 9000
Large scale IBM computer system.

ESF - Extended Super Frame
An enhanced version of D4 formatting, and it is the current industry standard. ESF is composed of 24 frames of 192 bits each. ESF provides 16 signaling states in the 193rd bit to ensure sychronization, supervisory control, and maintenance capabilities.

A LAN and data-link protocol based on a packet frame. Usually operating at 10Mbps, multiple devices can share access to the link.

A milestone, a signal, the completion of something that is of interest to an object, a process, or a system.

Event Driven
A system of cooperating objects that responds as things happen in real-time. (Contrast with Batch-Oriented)

Exchange Carriers Standards Association - ECSA
Developed 1984 SONET standard, etc.

Exemption Certificate
A written customer designation that certifies that its dedicated facility should be exempt Special Access Surcharge.

A formal process of diverging from normal processing procedures to accelerate the handling of a high-priority request (usually at a higher cost to the requester).

Express Circuit
A carrier circuit set up between two cities without multiplexing equipment, thus simplifying the provisioning process.

Extended Super Frame (ESF)
An enhanced version of D4 formatting, and it is the current industry standard. ESF is composed of 24 frames of 192 bits each. ESF provides 16 signaling states in the 193rd bit to ensure sychronization, supervisory control, and maintenance capabilities.

- F -

Facilities-Based Carrier - FBC
A carrier that uses its own facilities to provide service, in contrast with resellers, that purchase the services of other carriers and then retail the services to customers. (Most facilities-based carriers use the services of other carriers to some extent.)

A generic term for a logical component of a system (such as a telecommunications channel, a cross connect, a switch, a computer, a control center, a building, etc.).

Fast Packet
A general term for various streamlined packet technologies including frame relay, BISDN, and ATM. Compared to X.25 packet switching, fast packet contains a much reduced functionality, but with the lower overhead, fast packet systems can operate at higher rates at the same processing cost.

FAT - Final Acceptance Testing

FAX - Facsimile Image Transmission
There are multiple FAX transmission protocol standards and speeds. The most common standard used on voice-grade dial up analog networks is Group III at typical speeds from 2400 to 14,400 bps. On Digital Data Service (DDS) and ISDN, Group IV operates at 56,000 bps.

FCC - Federal Communications Commission
Regulates interstate communications: licenses, rates, tariffs, standards, limitations, etc. Appointed by U.S. President .

FDDI - Fiber Distributed Data Interface
A high-speed, optical-fiber-based LAN interface standard usually operating at 100Mbps. FDDI is a fault-tolerant dual counter-rotating-ring design.

Feature Group - FG
A Telco Product consisting of Services and Features (e.g. FG-D).

Subcomponent marketing options of Products and Services.

One Dial-Up Network Circuit via 2-Wire Connection.

One Dial-Up Network Circuit via 4-Wire Connection (Higher quality than FG-A, extra wires for signalling). ANI (caller's phone number) Service is optional.

(Used primarily by AT&T).

One 1+ Network Circuit via 4-Wire Connection. Also used for 800 Inbound WATS and Travel Card Service. Provides the "ANI" (caller's phone number) for billing purposes.

File Server
A process running on a computer that provides access to files for remote user systems.

A standard protocol that lists who is currently logged in on a host. Usually used in conjunction with a user ID.

First Call Date - Billing activation signal

FK - Foreign Key
A reference in one relation (table) or object to another object.

FOC - Firm Order Confirmation
A document sent by LECs that confirms (or denies) that the service requested (with an ASR) will be provided by the date that was originally requested.

Foreign Exchange (FX)
A DS-0 line utilizes Feature Group A facilities on one end of the circuit. The Feature Group A service connects a customer premise in the foreign location with the line side of a BOC central office switch in the U.S. The customer premise end of the circuit is referred to as the closed end because it terminates on a station instrument, key system, or PBX. The CO switch end of the circuit is referred to as the open-end because it is open to the public switched network. The open end of the circuit appears as a local business line in a local exchange, different from (foreign to) the local exchange of the closed end of the circuit. A dial tone from the distant city's local office is heard when this line is accessed, and a local phone number can be associated with the FX. An FX has fixed monthly charges for the originating local access, IXC, international circuits. Usage charges are applied through the local telephone company at the open (US) end. The advantages of an FX line are the use of a local phone number for long distance calls and high volume centralized long distance calling at reduced fixed costs. In the case of international FX services, the open end must be in the US, unless the foreign PTT can support this service. In many countries this service falls under regulatory laws.

Foreign Half Circuit
The logical circuit between the TMP and the ITMC in the foreign location.

FOT - Fiber Optic Terminal
Connects copper wire to optical fiber.

FRA - Fixed Radio Access

Fractional T1 - FT1
A service that uses a portion of a 24-channel T1 circuit. FT1 allows 64 Kbps increments from 2-channel 128 Kbps through all 24 channels at 1.544 Mbps.

Fractional T3 - FT3
A service that uses a portion of a 672-channel T3 circuit for any mix of voice, data or broadcast-quality video.

FRAD - Frame Relay Assembler/disassembler
Used to interface a customer's LAN with the frame relay WAN. This device interfaces LMI with IPX switch port.

Frame Relay
A wideband (64Kbps to 1.544Mbps) packet-based data interface standard that transmits bursts of data over WANs. Frame-relay packets vary in length from 7 to 1024 bytes. Data oriented, it is not usually used for voice or video.

Frame Relay Forum
Consortium of vendors and consumers of frame relay equipment and services which specifies Implementation Agreements to ensure interoperability between multiple vendors' products and services.

Frame Slip (Also called just "slip")
Any shift of the timing on a circuit. Usually the difference between D4 Super Frame and Extended Super Frame or an un-framed signal stream. During an out-of-frame condition, one frame slip would increment.

Fraud - Toll Fraud
A crime in which a hacker obtains telecommunication services by: breaching computer security, using or selling stolen long-distance credit-card codes, or, accessing a PBX and using its communication facilities illegally. Toll Fraud is estimated to cost U.S. companies $1.2 billion/year.

Front End Processor - FEP
A support computer for a larger host computer. Performs communications and network control operations, freeing the host processor to do data processing.

FSO - Foreign Service Office (NPA/NXX)

FTP - File Transfer Protocol (TCP/IP)
Used to provide file transfers across a wide variety of systems. FTP is an efficient application that only performs the most basic of file manipulations commands. This application is at the seventh layer of the OSI model.

Fractional digital service hierarchy level 1 with service in multiples of 56/64 Kbps 2 channels (112/128Kbps) or above, and up to 23 channels. 256/512/768/1024Kbps are common rates for this type of service. Also called fractional T1. See LD-1. FT-3 Fractional digital service hierarchy level 3 with service in multiples of 1.344Mbps. Also called fractional T3.

Full Duplex
Simultaneous two-way communication path.

FX - Foreign Exchange
A dedicated line that operates as though it was a local switched line in a central office, other than where it is located. A DS-0 line utilizes Feature Group A facilities on one end of the circuit. The Feature Group A service connects a customer premise in the foreign location with the line side of a BOC central office switch in the U.S. The customer premise end of the circuit is referred to as the closed end because it terminates on a station instrument, key system, or PBX. The CO switch end of the circuit is referred to as the open-end because it is open to the public switched network. The open end of the circuit appears as a local business line in a local exchange, different from (foreign to) the local exchange of the closed end of the circuit. A dial tone from the distant city's local office is heard when this line is accessed, and a local phone number can be associated with the FX. An FX has fixed monthly charges for the originating local access, IXC, international circuits. Usage charges are applied through the local telephone company at the open (US) end. The advantages of an FX line are the use of a local phone number for long distance calls and high volume centralized long distance calling at reduced fixed costs. In the case of international FX services, the open end must be in the US, unless the foreign PTT can support this service. In many countries this service falls under regulatory laws.

- G -

Gateway Protocol Converter
An application-specific node that connects otherwise incompatible networks. Converts data codes and transmission protocols to enable interoperability. (Contrast Bridge)

Geographic location code used by the Vertex taxing system.

Greenwich (England) Mean Time - Zulu Time GMT is 6 hours later than Central Standard Time (CST in the northern hemisphere Winter) and 5 hours later than Central Daylight-Savings Time (CDT in the northern hemisphere Summer). GMT (Zulu Time) is always the same worldwide. Communication network switches are typically coordinated on GMT.

Internet public database browsing and searching program.

- H -

HDSL - High-bitrate Digital Subscriber Loop Half Duplex
Alternating two-way communication path (one way at a time).

HDB3 - High Density Bipolar Three
A line interface standard for E1 which is similar to B8ZS, which eliminates data streams with 8 or more consecutive zeros. Allows for 64Kbps clear channel capacity and still assures a minimum ones density required by E1 lines.

HDLC- High-level Data Link Control
An ITU-T standard for a bit-oriented datalink-layer protocol on which most other bit oriented protocols are based.Submitted by: Kieran Taylor, WAN Editor, Data Communications HML Multiline Hunt Group. If first line is busy, rollover to the next available line in the group.

Holding Time
The total time from you picking up the handset, to dialing a number, to waiting for it an answer, having a conversation on the line, to hanging up and replacing the handset in its cradle. You are never billed for holding time. You are always billed for only conversation time which is only part of the holding time. Although, holding time figures are nice to know when you are trying to determine how many circuits you need. You will need sufficient circuits to support dialing, etc. - even though you're not being billed for that time.

Hoot-n-Holler - also known as a shout down
A voice only full time circuit that connects a speakerphone in one location to a speakerphone in a distant location. This type of circuit is normally open at all times to allow two-way communications without having to pick up the receiver or dial the phone. Speakerphones used in this type of circuit are full duplex, transmit and receive units. This circuit is very similar to the ARD and MRD and is also used by the financial industry.

A network connection between two distant nodes.

A group of circuits connected at one point on a network. Enables traffic concentration and economies of scale. Hubs are located in larger cities throughout a network for concentration and routing of calls from cities with lower traffic demands.

Hybrid Key System
A CPE system that has characteristics of both a key system and a PBX system.

Hybrid Object-Oriented System
A computer system that combines object-oriented modeling and development methodology with non-object-oriented techniques (such as relational databases). This approach complicates the development and maintenance process and does not fully exploit the potential of object-oriented technology. It is a tactic that is used during the transition from legacy systems to fully object-oriented, enterprise-wide software solutions.

Interactive on-line documentation technique. Allows the user to select (e.g. mouse click) certain words or phrases and immediately display related information for the selected item. Hypertext requires a "tag" language (like Hypertext Markup Language) to specify branch labels with a hypertext document.

- I -

Interexchange Carrier - IXC - IEC (IEC is preferred). A company providing long-distance phone service between LECs and LATAs.

ICB - Individual Case Basis
Nonstandard situations where special arrangements are required to satisfy unusual requirements. General tariffs do not apply.

ICMP - Internet Control Message Protocol
Delivers error and control messages from hosts to message requestors. An ICMP test may determine whether a destination is reachable. An ICMP echo is also called a PING.

IEC - Interexchange Carrier
IC - IXC (IEC is preferred). A company providing long-distance phone service between LECs and LATAs.

IEC Miles - Interexchange Carrier (Long Distance) Miles

IXC Miles
On a Price Quote, the coordinates of Location A and Location B are used to calculate mileage-dependent line charges.

IEEE 802.3
The standard for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection is one of the most used LAN protocols.

IETF - See Internet Engineering Task Force

IMS - Information Management System
Hierarchical-database-oriented transaction processing software. Used by the Bellcore SMS/800 system.

IMT - Inter-Machine Trunk
High capacity connection between switches (e.g. DMS-250 to DMS-250).

IMTSF - Interstate Message Telecommunications Service Tariff

In Band Signalling
A method of sending signals over the same channel bandwidth as service being provided to a customer. (Contrast Out Of Band)

Information Content Provider
A business that supplies information or programming services such as news, weather, business reports, entertainment, etc.

Information Digits
CDR call type options. Two digit codes which precede the 7-or-10 digit destination number and inform exchange carriers and IECs about the type of line that originated the call, any special characteristics of the billing number, or certain service classes. These codes plus the destination number are part of the signalling protocol of equal access offices. These codes are defined by Bellcore. Examples: 00 - POTS, 01 - Multiparty, 02 - ANI Failure, 06 - Hotel/Motel, 07 - Special Operator Handling, 20 - AIOD, 24 - 800, 27 - Coin, 30 - Unassigned DN, 31- Trouble/Busy, 32 - Recent change or disconnect, 34 - Telco Operator, 52 - Outward WATS, 61- Cellular 1, 62 - Cellular 2, 63 - Roaming, 70 - Private Pay Phone, 93 - Private virtual Network

Information Provider - See Information Content Provider

Information Superhighway
A Clinton/Gore administration plan to deregulate communication services beginning with 1994 legislation. It will integrate concepts from Internet, CATV, telephone, business, entertainment, information providers, education, etc. The potential impact to businesses, schools, homes and society as a whole are significant. CATV will be allowed to provide telephone and videoconferencing services. Phone companies will be allowed to provide movies and information services. Aggressive companies could be major winners in the next few years. The potential is only limited by our imagination and creativity. The rate of change sparked by the Information Superhighway may be faster than anything the telecommunications industry has ever experienced before.

The transfer of object features (data attributes and operations) from a "class" that defines the common features of similar objects.

Inside Wiring
Wiring within a customer's premise that is used for internal communications or to connect CPE to the network interface.

Service Initiation - Circuit, DAL or Port Connection

Integrated Access
The use of a single connection/circuit to access multiple telecommunications services (e.g.. private lines, switched services, frame relay).

Integrated Access Billing System - IABS
The application system used by LECs to bill access services. (Also called CABS - Carrier Access Billing System)

Intercept Type Information Digits
30 - Unassigned DN, 31 - Manual Assignment: Trouble or Busy, 32 - Recently changed or disconnected DN

Relating to the provision of CPE, especially installed key and PBX systems (e.g., "the interconnect business"). May refer to a company that provides/installs CPE.

Communication between two different LATAs.

Communication between Local Access Transport Areas. 1982 MFJ requires LECs to use an IEC for InterLATA services.

Between multiple nations.

International Circuits
The international (between country) portion of an international private line circuit that runs between two International Test and Maintenance Center's (ITMC); a US based center and a center located in the foreign country. This transport may be via satellite or undersea cable, and is usually further divided into two components, the US half and the foreign half. Accounting for these half circuits is based on a TMP along this circuit.

International Test and Maintenance Centers (ITMC)
The point of demarcation for international circuits. Although it may be physically different from the undersea cable head or the satellite earth-station, it is often thought of as the end of domestic traffic and the beginning of international traffic.

Large international communication network that connects government agencies, technical universities and commercial customers. It is growing at 20% per month. Internet is a prototype of some services that will be on the Information Superhighway. (See Information Superhighway, TCP/IP, MIB, Usenet, WWW, Gopher, WAIS)

Internet Engineering Task Force - IETF
The standards and specifications review board for the Internet.

A communications industry trade show

The ability of heterogenous systems and networks to communicate and cooperate through specified standards.

Inoperative service (or a portion thereof).

Between multiple states. Interstate communications are regulated by the FCC.

Communication within a Local Access Transport Area. 1982 MFJ allows LEC to handle these calls without an IEC.

Communication within a single state. Intrastate communications are regulated by each state's PUC.

The process or computer programs for calculating, producing and distributing bills.

IP - Internet Protocol
The internet protocol that defines the unit of information passed between systems that provides a basis packet delivery service.

IP Address
The internet protocol address which is a 32-bit address assigned to a host. The IP address has a host component and a network component.

This application for NetWare connects a PC Novell NetWare LAN through a network interface device.

ISDN - Integrated Services Digital Network
A set of standards for transmission of simultaneous voice, data and video information over fewer channels than would otherwise be needed, through the use of out-of-band signalling. The most common ISDN system provides one data and two voice circuits over a traditional copper wire pair, but can represent as many as 30 channels. Broadband ISDN extends the ISDN capabilities to services in the Gigabit range. (See BRI and PRI)

ISO - International Standards Organization
Defines communications and computing standards. ISO 7776 - High-Level Data Link Control Procedures X.25 .

ISO 8208
X.25 Packet Level Protocol for DTE.

ISSC - Information Systems Solutions Corp
An IBM subsidiary computer center outsourcing company.

ISUP - ISDN User Part

IT - Information Technology

1) Interexchange Carrier (IEC is preferred). A company providing long-distance phone service between LECs and LATAs.
2) Interexchange Circuit. A circuit that connects PoPs.

IXC MilesInterexchange Carrier (Long Distance) Miles
On a Price Quote, the coordinates of Location A and Location B are used to calculate mileage-dependent line charges.

- J -

Any condition in the provisioning process that endangers the requested completion date (e.g. "no facilities available").

JIT - Just In Time

JRAD - Joint / Rapid Application Development - RCD

A point on the network where there is a "fork", but where no PoP exists, (i.e. no drops off the network are possible).

- K -

One Thousand - 1,024 (binary 2**10)

Database Concept. An identifier for a single collection of data (e.g. a record, a row, an object, etc.). The key for a customer might be a customer number. The key for 800 number information might be the 800 number plus the state code plus an effective date, etc. One collection of data may have a "foreign key" that points to another collection of related data in another file, table, database, collection of objects, etc.

Key System
An office telephone system that provides all users with immediate access to outside lines when they press one or two dedicated keys without needing operator's services. For example, a six-button key system could have a hold button, four outside lines and an intercom. Key systems typically have fewer lines and telephones than a PBX system. A key system can also be used with a PBX or Centrex system.

- L -

LAN - Local Area Network
A network of multiple interconnected data terminals or devices within a local area to facilitate data transfer. Most notable of LAN topologies are ethernet, token ring, and FDDI.

LAN Interconnect
A point on a LAN where circuits can be routed & administered.

LAP - Local Access Provider

LAT - Local Area Transport
Ethernet protocol developed by Digital Equipment Corporation.

Local Access Transport Areas (200 in the U.S.). A geographic service area defined in the AT&T Modified Final Judgement. The RBOCs (baby Bells) and GTE are restricted to operations within, but not between, LATAs. Long distance service within a LATA is provided by the LEC. Service between LATAs is provided by an IEC. LATAs are represented by a 3-character code.

System design and communication standards that define different levels of conceptual abstraction (simplification).(e.g. The ISO OSI framework consists of seven layers.)

Layer 1
Physical Layer - The equipment

Layer 2
Data Link Layer - Protocols & Error Messages

Layer 3
Network Layer - Addresses & Routing

Layer 4
Transport Layer - Information Exchange - Delivery & Flow

Layer 5
Session Layer - Dialog Management

Layer 6
Presentation Layer - Mask Data Format Differences

Layer 7
Application Layer - Functions & Services

LCA - Local Calling Area

LD - Long distance
Outside the local exchange service area.

Fractional digital service hierarchy level 1 with service much the same as FT-1 except the service is integrated with voice, data, video, and frame relay.

LEC - See Local Exchange Carrier

LEC BAN - Billing Account Number
3-digit number appended to the billing phone number used as the LEC customer number. Groups all ANIs for a customer.

LEC Billing
Arrangement whereby the Local Exchange Carrier invoices the customer for some or all telecommunications services.

LEC Card
The billing arrangement which enables the caller to bill calls to an authorized calling card issued by a local exchange carrier.

LEC Charges
Charges that are the responsibility of the local exchange carrier.

LED - Light Emitting Diode
An electronic device that efficiently emits light with little generation of heat. LEDs are often used in fiber-optic systems instead of coherent light lasers, particularly when low speeds or short distances are involved.

LERG - Local Exchange Routing Guide
Documents end offices and their relationship to Tandem (Class 4 Toll) Offices. Produced by Bellcore Traffic Routing Admin (TRA).

Letter Of Agency - LOA
A document that authorizes changing the service provider. (See RespOrg, 800 Portability)

Line Number
The 4-digit XXXX number assigned to a North American telephone within an NXX exchange. (See NANP)

Line Segment
The expanse of fiber-optic cable(s) between 2 network locations.

LMI - Local Management Interface
A protocol with four different versions used to control the local interface from a routing device to the WAN Switch. Also used for configuration, flow control, and maintenance of the local connection.

Abbreviation for Lines, "#LNS" is the number of lines.

LOA - See Letter Of Agency

Local Access
Local Loop. The connection from a subscriber to the Central Office. The portion of a circuit connecting the LEC's CO with the customer's premise equipment across the local network.

Local Access Mileage
For dedicated (non-switched) private lines there may be a recurring charge rate element that is based on mileage to the Central Office.

Local Access Provider
Any organization that is authorized to provide local access. (May or may not be the LEC.)

Local Exchange Carrier - LEC
The local or regional telephone company that owns and operates lines to customer locations and Class 5 Central Office Switches. LECs have connections to other COs, Tandem (Class 4 Toll) offices and may connect directly to IECs like WorldCom, AT&T, MCI, Sprint, etc.

Local Exchange Service
Local phone calls.

Local Loop
See Local Access.

Local Serving Office - LSO
NPA + NXX 6-digit code.

Long Distance - LD
Outside the local exchange service area.

Long Distance Carrier
A company providing long-distance phone service between LECs and LATAs.

Long Distance Marketplace
The long distance voice and data market is over $60 billion per year. AT&T provides more than half, with MCI, Sprint, and LDDS in the second, third and forth place positions.

Long Haul Facility
Long Distance Trunk - IMT .

Loopback Test
A circuit test at any device which will tie the transmit data to the receive data in order to apply a signal and receive the data back for interpretation. Usually done at a customer device such as a CSU or a network device such as DS-O or DS-1 DACS port.

LSO - Local Serving Office
NPA + NXX 6-digit code.

- M -

One Million

A multiplexor that adapts DS-1 circuits to a DS-3 circuit.

Mag Media
Magnetic data storage (e.g. floppy disk, hard drive, tape, etc.)

MAN - Metropolitan Area Network
LANs interconnected within roughly a 50 mile radius. MANs typically use fiber optic cable to connect various wire LANS. Transmission speeds may vary from 2 to 100 Mbps.

Man-Machine Interface - MMI End User Computer Interface

Manual Ring Down (MRD)
A manual ring down gets its name from the fact that ring signaling is controlled by the user. When not signaling, an open circuit is present at all times.

MDI - Multiple Document Interface
Microsoft Windows standard that allows an application to control multiple documents or multiple views of the same document within the main application window (workspace).

Measured Service
Pay Per Minute - Incremental Usage Charges

Mechanized Interface (to SMS/800)
Also known as Mechanized Generic Interface. Direct computer-to-computer interaction software between IEC computer systems and SMS/800. In contrast to manual "online" or "batch" file processing modes. See Service Management System, RespOrg, 800 Portability.

Information storage techniques (e.g. magnetic tape, magnetic disk, optical disc, print, etc.)

Message Toll Service - MTS
Pay-by-the-minute switched long distance services. Includes conventional long distance and measured WATS.

MFJ - See Modified Final Judgement

MGI - Mechanized Generic Interface - See Mechanized Interface

MI - See Mechanized Interface

MIB - Management Information Base
The data schema which defines information available from an SNMP managable device or service to network management systems.

MMI - huMan Machine Interface
End User Computer Interface

Modem - Modulator/Demodulator
End User Computer Interface

Modified Final Judgement - MFJ
A 1982 court order issued by Federal Judge Harold H. Greene. MFJ settled the 1974 antitrust suit and specified the divestiture of AT&T. MFJ created the seven Regional Holding Companies (Baby Bells), RBOCS, LATAs, Equal Access, etc. AT&T retained long-distance service and its manufacturing business. The restriction that barred AT&T from entering the computer business was lifted.

MRC - Monthly Recurring Charge

MSA - Metropolitan Serving Area

MTS - See Message Toll Service

Multidrop Circuit
A single circuit or channel that has more than one connection on one end. For example, 2 offices at one location sharing one line.

Computer systems that integrate audio, video & data.

Multiplexer - MUX
A device that combines 2 or more signals into a single composite data stream for transmission on a single channel. For example, an M1-3 MUX combines 28 DS-1s into a DS-3.

Multipoint Circuit
A circuit that has more than one IEC leg.

MUX -See Multiplexer

- N -

NANP - North American Numbering Plan

NPA Area Codes, NXX Exchanges and XXXX Line Numbers
The process for assigning 10-digit (3+3+4) North American telephone numbers

Narrowband - Voice Grade
A low-capacity communications Circuit / path. It usually implies a speed of 56Kbps or less. (Contrast with Wideband and Broadband)

NASC - 800 Number Administration and Service Center
The organization that administers the SMS/800 system for the reservation, registration and administration of all North American 800 numbers for all carriers. (See 800 Portability, RespOrg and SMS/800)

NC Codes - Network Channel Codes
Industry standard codes that define the type of service being provided at each end of a circuit.

NCON - See Customer Contact Name (SMS 800 Reservation)

NDM - See Network Data Mover

NeTBIOS - Network Basic Input/Output System
This system provides a Session layer interface between network applications running on a PC and the underlying protocol software of the Transport and Network layers on the ODI model. Normally a LAN protocol.

A system of interrelated elements that are interconnected in a dedicated or switched linkage to provide local or remote communication (of voice, video, data, etc.) and to facilitate the exchange of information between end users with common interests. The set of switches, circuits, trunks and software that make up a telecommunications facility.

Network Surveillance
Equipment, people, systems and procedures that monitor network activity and react to unusual situations.

Network Data Mover - NDM
File transmission protocol software

Network Database Updates
Process for defining network configuration, valid access/use, alternate routing tables, etc.

Networked Computing Technologies
Hardware, software and architectural approaches for distributing computer applications across interconnected computers.

NEWRO - New Responsible Organization (See RespOrg)

NFS - Network File System
This system is a protocol developed to use IP and allow a set of computers to access each other's file systems as if they were on the local host.

Generic term used to refer to an entity that accesses a network.

Non-Recurring Charge - NRC
Also known as OTC - One-Time (Setup) Charge.

NPA - Numbering Plan Areas
North American "Area Codes." (3 digits: 2-to-9, 0-or-1, 0-to-9. Middle digit to expand soon)

NPA-NXX Routing
Area Code / Exchange Routing. Route calls based on the originating ANI NPA-NXX.

NPA Routing
Area Code Routing. Route calls based on the originating ANI NPA (area code.)

NPA Split
Subdividing an area code, with the creation of a new area code. This is necessary when the number of telephones in an area code (NPA) grows to an excessive number.

NRC - See Non-Recurring Charge

NTI - Northern Telecom Incorporated
Manufacturer of a wide variety of telecommunications related products.

NTN - National Telecommunications Network
A consortium of WorldCom, Litel, CNI, SouthernNet and Microtel that banded together in 1985 to form a national telecommunications network.

NASC SMS/800 Number Search. SMS application used to find available 800 numbers and reserve them for up to 60 days.

Exchanges (First 3 digits of a 7-digit phone number). (2-to-9, 0-to-9, 0-to-9) (Digits 4, 5 and 6 in a 10 digit NANP telephone number - NPA-NXX-XXXX).

- O -

OA - Order Administration

OAMP - Operations, Administration, Maintenance and Provisioning

OAS - See Office Automation Systems

Object ID - Object Identification
The name that uniquely distinguishes one object from all others. The short form of an Object ID is unique on a local machine, or a LAN. A longer form of the Object ID may be required to uniquely identify it on a WAN. (See Universal Name Space) If the local machine name or LAN name is part of the Object ID, special consideration is required to support Object Mobility.

Object Mobility Location Transparency
Location Transparency. The ability to move an Object from one machine or LAN to another without disrupting operations or modifying source code.

Object Model
A computer representation that encapsulates data attributes and behavioral processes (operations) for an object. Object model software may respond to events, triggers, and requests for service submitted as message stimuli (with a finite set of message types, argument types and message formats). An object model is a graphical representation of the structure of objects in a system including their: identity, attributes, operations, and associations between objects.

Object Modeling Technique - OMT
An application life cycle development methodology and graphical notation scheme that spans: object models, dynamic models, and functional models from analysis, through design, and implementation.

Object Oriented - OO
The idea of computer analysis, design and system development where real-world concepts (like customers, orders, products, etc.) are modeled as "encapsulated" objects with attributes and operations. (Unlike conventional computing systems that isolate database design from program design.) Similar objects are grouped together in "classes" with common data attributes and operations that can be "inherited" by "instances" of the class. Reusable subcomponent part objects can be assembled in various ways to define a wide variety of business object models, and reduce reinventing the wheel and incompatible applications. Objects communicate with other encapsulated objects by sending "messages". OO technology is very effective in the creation of innovative computer systems, communication networks, interface design, quality assurance and parallel development of reliable, reusable software modules.

OC - Optical Carrier
Transport levels defined for SONET.

51.84Mbps : 1 DS-3, 28 DS-1, 672 DS-0

155.52Mbps : 3 DS-3, 84 DS-1, 2016 DS-0

466.56Mbps : 9 DS-3, 252 DS-1, 6048 DS-0

622.08Mbps : 12 DS-3, 336 DS-1, 8064 DS-0

933.12Mbps : 18 DS-3, 504 DS-1, 12096 DS-0

1244.16Mbps : 24 DS-3, 672 DS-1, 16.128 DS-0

1866.24Mbps : 36 DS-3, 1008 DS-1, 24,192 DS-0

2488.32Mbps : 48 DS-3, 1344 DS-1, 32,256 DS-0

4976.64Mbps : 96 DS-3, 2688 DS-1, 64,512 DS-0

9953.28Mbps : 192 DS-3, 5376 DS-1, 129,024 DS-0

OCC - Other Common Carrier
Not part of the original AT&T system.

OCR - Optical Character Recognition

OCUDP - Office Channel Unit
Data Port.

ODBMS - Object-Oriented Data Base Management System
Computer software and related hardware that provides persistent storage of objects.

ODMG 93 - Object Database Management Group
The dominant standard for ODBMS bindings from C++ and Smalltalk. Uses the same language for defining and accessing objects as the programming language (unlike RDBMS that use a different SQL for manipulating data). Endorsed by primary ODBMS vendors like Object Design (ObjectStore), Versant, Ontos, Objectivity and Servio (Gemstone). ODMG 93 is likely to become the ODBMS industry standard for transportability.

Off Hook
The signal that the telephone receiver has been lifted (activated). Originating off hook activates a dial tone on switched networks. Destination off hook completes a call (and activates minute-by-minute billing for long distance calls).

Office Automation Systems - OAS
Word processors, spreadsheets, calendars, etc.

OM - See Operational Measurement or Object Model

OMT - See Object Modeling Technique

One Plus - 1+
Customer ability to access the long distance service provider of their choice by first dialing 1, then the long distance number. Equal Access guaranteed by the 1982 AT&T MFJ. 1+ is an outbound service where the calling station pays the charges.

ONI - Operator Number Identification

OO - Object Oriented

OOF - Out Of Frame
Condition counter that increments every change in the framing status of a circuit or device.

Operational Measurement - OM
Statistical data (e.g. alternate trunk usage, etc.).

Operator Service Call - OSC
A call that is placed through a human or automated operator (0+) .

Operator Service Provider - OSP - OS Provider
The vendor that supplies operator service.

Operator Service Record - OSR (0+ generates OSR and CDR)

OPX - Off-Premise Extensions
A station line at a location other than the premise where the PBX (or local exchange service) is located.

ORB - Object Request Broker
Receives, redirects and routes realtime inter-object messages.

The person, location or ANI that initiated a call, order, etc.

OSC - Operator Service Call

OSP - Operator Service Provider - OS Provider

OSQL - Object(-Oriented) Structured Query Language
The standard object selectivity language for ODBMS (Multiple implementations available).

OSR - Operator Service Record
O+ generates OSR and CDR.

OSS - Operator Services System

OTC - One Time Charge

Outward Sending - Call Originating - Dialing Out

Out-Of-Band Signalling
The use of transmission facilities other than the primary channel bandwidth for simple transmission control pulses. (Contrast In Band Signalling)

(Object-Oriented) Multiple definitions of an object operation. Different input arguments (signatures) requesting the same operation name (message type) cause different methods (functions) to be invoked. OO slang may use the term "overload" to refer to ambiguous use of a word, etc. (Network Capacity) Excessive activity on a network. Causes calls to be "blocked".

In frame relay service definition, oversubscription occurs when the sum of the CIRs for all PVCs on a port exceed the port connection speed. Subscription levels of 200% are typically allowed. Oversubscription is possible because of dynamic capacity allocation in modern data networks.

- P -

Packet Switching
A transmission protocol where data is divided into small blocks with destinations so various routes can be efficiently taken, to avoid overloading a single facility. Paths are temporary and dynamic. Allows facility sharing by many users. Requires PAD.

PAD - Packet Assembly / Disassembly Facility
A device that converts a serial data stream into discrete packets in the transmit direction and converts the received packets back into a serial data stream. Adds header information in the transmit packet to allow it to be routed to the proper destination.

PAL - Public Access Line (e.g. Payphone)

A reusable software object that behaves differently based on the input specifications that are given to it. (See Template)

Person (participant in a call, etc.)

Path Circuit - Connection Route

A public (or private) telephone that accepts coins or encoded credit cards.

PBX - Private Branch Exchange
A Customer Premise Communication Switch used to connect customer telephones (and related equipment) to LEC central office lines (trunks), and to switch internal calls within the customer's telephone system. Modern PBXs offer numerous software-controlled features such as call forwarding and call pickup. A PBX uses technology similar to that used by a central office switch (on a smaller scale). (The acronym PBX originally stood for "Plug Board Exchange".)

PC - Personal Computer
Any computing system for use primarily by one person.

Peer-To-Peer Network Communication Architecture
Objects that communicate in a network as equals, in contrast to a master/slave client/server relationship.

Permanent Virtual Circuit - PVC
In data networking services, a circuit that is defined in a static manner with static parameters, but which is not tied to a given physical path through the network.

Operator assisted phone call - only billed if the specified person is available.

Physical Change
The modification of an existing circuit, dedicated access channel or port, at the request of the customer.

PIC - Primary Interexchange Carrier
The IEC that 1+ calls are routed to. Specified by ANI.

PIC Charges
A LEC charge for changing the PIC. Often paid by the new IEC. If a LEC sends a PIC charge to a customer, the new IEC will typically credit the customer's account.

PIC Request
A request record sent to a LEC asking for an ANI to be activated, deactivated or changed in some way.

PIC Response
A response record sent by a LEC (corresponding to a previous PIC Request) with a response code thatindicates whether the request was performed. (Some LECs return non-standard PIC Response codes.)

Pin Digits - Personal Identification Number Digits

PING - Packet INternet Groper
A program useful in testing and debugging LAN/WAN troubles. It sends out an Echo and expects a specified host to respond back in a specified time frame.

Apple Computer's Object-Oriented Operating System. (Merged with IBM to form "Taligent".)

The foundation of a system on which subcomponents depend.

PM - Performance Monitoring

PMR - Private Mobile Radio
Usually non-cellular based systems, standardized by ETSI ETS300.279, used for private data and voice exchange.

Point Of Presence - POP
The physical access location interface between a local exchange carrier and an Interexchange Carrier fiber network. The point to which the telephone company terminates a subscriber's circuit for long distance service or leased line communications.

A circuit that connects a single node to a switch.

Non-switched, dedicated communication circuit.

POP - (See Point Of Presence)

Port - (ambiguous)
1. A network entry or exit point,
2. A measure of CPE equipment capacity, generally based on the sum of the number of station lines and trunks, (e.g. a PBX with 100 station lines and 20 trunks would have 120 ports),
3. A connection between a computer and an external device (e.g. a printer port),
4. a connection point on a multiplexer, 5. the process of transporting something (like an application program) from one environment to another.

POTS - Plain Old Telephone Service

PRI - Primary Rate Interface (ISDN)
An ISDN circuit transmitting at T1 (DS-1) speed (equivalent to 24 voice-grade channels). One of the channels ("D") is used for signaling, leaving 23 ("B") channels for data and voice communication.

Primary Interexchange Carrier
The long distance company that is automatically accessed when a customer dials 1+.

Primary Path
The preferred route from one switched node to another.

Private Line
Uses dedicated circuits to connect customer's equipment at both ends of the line. Does not provide any switching capability (unless supported by customer premise equipment). Usually includes two local loops and an IEC circuit.

Private Network
A communications network with restricted (controlled) access. Usually made up of private lines (with some PBX switching).

A character or string of characters used by a host to identify user needed information at the entry point of text inputs.

Property Surcharge
A per-call or per-minute charge assessed on an Operator-Assisted call by the property owner from which the call was placed. This charge is separate from the Call Type Surcharge, and monies from this charge are usually assigned to the property owner as part of the compensation package.

Very specific rules/standards for information transmission. A formal set of conventions governing the format and control of inputs and outputs between two communicating entities.

Protocol Converter
An application-specific node that connects otherwise-incompatible networks. Converts data codes and transmission protocols to enable interoperability. (Contrast Bridge)

The process by which a requested (ordered) service is designed, implemented and tracked (providing the subcomponent parts).

PSPDN - Packet Switched Public Data Network
Packet oriented public network usually based on X.25.

PTN - Public Telephone Network

Public Network
A switched communications network with unrestricted access.

Public Telephone Network - PTN

PUC - Public Utilities Commission
The agency regulating intrastate phone service.

PVC - See Permanent Virtual Circuit

- Q -

Quality Assurance - QA
A formal approach to product development and delivery with the goal of zero defects.

A facility that stores transactions or event-oriented messages and activates them for processing in a specific sequence such as "first in first out", "priority", "event type", etc.

- R -

RAD - Rapid Application (Design and) Development
Spiral model, incremental, JIT progression from requirement analysis through prototyping, validation, development, deployment and enhancement.

RAO - Revenue Accounting Office

Rapid Cycle Development - RCD
James Martin propagated the term RAD before he embraced OO Technology. RCD is a superset of RAD plus OO Methodology.

Rate Center
A specified geographical coordinate location used for determining mileage measurements.

Rate Element
A recurring fixed charge for IEC or LEC service at the lowest level. A local loop may have multiple rate elements associated with it, which make up the fixed portion of the monthly bill. For example: Local Access, Local Mileage, Entrance facilities, Channel Termination, Interexchange, etc.

Rates and Tariffs
Standards published by AT&T, OCCs,LECs, and IECs that define service availability, cost and provisioning procedures.

The process (or computer system) used to determine the customer charge for each billable call, based on time, duration and customer contract terms and conditions.

RBOC - Regional Bell Operating Company

RCC - Radio Common Carrier

RCCN - Radio Common Carrier Number
800 NXX numbers that are reserved for use by RCCs.

RDBMS - Relational Data Base Management System
A structured computer information storage and retrieval system where the basic unit is a Table with Rows and Columns (See Relation). Data is defined, accessed and modified with Structured Query Language (SQL) statements. (e.g. Sybase, Oracle, DB2, SQL/DS).

Real Time
Rapid transmission and processing of event-oriented data and transactions as they occur, in contrast to being stored and retransmitted or processed as batches. Real-time systems are required for monitor and control systems, but are not required where long response times (e.g. over night) are acceptable.

Rebiller - See Reseller

Reanalysis and radical redesign that is not bound by previous obsolete solutions. (Contrast TQM - incremental improvement)

Regen Stations
Points on a fiber optic network (spaced about 30 miles apart) where optical signals are regenerated.

Regional Bell Operating Companies - RBOC
One of the seven "Baby Bell" Companies created by the 1982 Modified Final Judgement that specified the terms of the AT&T Divestiture. The seven RHCs include: NYNEX, Bell Atlantic, Bell South, Southwestern Bell, U.S. West, Pacific Telesis, and Ameritech. "RBOC" is sometimes used informally to refer to the Regional Holding Companies defined in the 1982 MFJ. (See Bell Operating Companies - There are 19 BOCs).

FCC, PUC, Federal Courts (e.g. MFJ), etc.

A two-dimensional Table with Rows and Columns in an RDBMS. A Table must have at least two Columns. Each Row is an instance representing one relationship between column values (e.g. a table that relates Customer Numbers to their Names).

The OO concept of any Type of Association existing between two or more objects. (e.g. Inheritance, Aggregation, Requires, Provides, Connection, Uses, etc.). All relationships are bidirectional (e.g. PARTS and PART_OF).

A payment in response to a bill or an invoice.

A device that propagates electrical signals. (See Attenuation).

Reseller - Also known as Rebiller
A long-distance carrier (IEC) that does not own a network, but leases bulk capacity and resells portions of it at a higher rate.

Residential Customer
An individual (non-business) telephone system subscriber.

Responsible Organization - R/O
With 800 Portability,the Number Administration Service Center (NASC) allows the RespOrg to make changes such as carrier, termination, 800 call routing (by time of day, location.) A Letter Of Agency (LOA) must be on file to change the RespOrg for each customer/account.

To make service operative following an interruption by repair, reassignment, rerouting, substitution of parts, or otherwise.

Object (class) design and organization that encourages reuse in systems other than the original application.

RFC - Request For Comment
Documents on the Internet that describe all aspects and issues associated with the Internet protocols or any computer and telecommunications subject.

RHC - See Regional Bell Operating Companies

RMU - Remote Monitoring Unit

Read Only - R/O
Read Only data is not modifiable by user.

A system that controls message distribution between multiple optional paths in a network. Routers use routing protocols to gain information about the network, routing metrics and algorithms to select the "best route".

- S -

SAL - Special Access Line

The ability to add power and capability to an existing system without significant expense or overhead. An "economy of scale" exists when a small increase in load produces a less-than-linear increase in overhead. A "diseconomy of scale" exists when a small increase cause a significant increase in overhead.

SCE - Service Creation Environment

A set of one-or-more typical interaction dialogs between the users of a system (people or other systems) and a proposed system that is about to be developed. Scenarios are developed during the analysis phase of system development to assist in understanding business events, objects and interactions.

SCP - See Service Control Point

SDH - Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
CCITT version of SONET

Control mechanisms that prevent unauthorized use of resources.

Service Control Point- SCP
Computers that enable carriers to offer enhanced services by: (1) acting on the format, content, code, protocol or similar aspects of transmitted information; (2) providing additional or restructured information; or (3) involving subscriber interaction with stored data(e.g. translating 800 numbers to a POTS number or a trunk group). SCPs connect to Signalling Points, which connect to Switches.

Service Creation Environment - SCE
GUI software for entering complex enhanced service specifications.

Service Management System - SMS / 800
An IBM Information Management System (IMS) interactive computer system that coordinates all national 800 numbers across all U.S. telephone companies and carriers. It supports IBM 3270 terminal on-line access, batch processing (for 800 basic service only), and a Mechanized Interface.

Service Order - SO
A request to provide communication service(s).

Service Type
The service(s) requested on a Service Order (e.g. VF, DDS, DS-1, DS-3, etc.)

Serving Wire
Phone number - POTS number.

Serving Wire Center
NPA/NXX - See Central Office

SF - Super Frame
A data transmission format comprised of 12 frames of 192 bits each. A single 193rd bit is used for link control and error checking. As an industry standard, D4, also known as SF, has been superseded by the Extended Super Frame (ESF) format.

Shared Tenant Service- STS
The provision of PBX services (frequently by a landlord) to multiple customers located in the same building, campus or group of buildings. External calls can be placed and received over common lines and intracompany calls can be made without the use of outside LEC lines. State regulations frequently restrict the provision of STS to protect LEC interests.

An event-oriented change in state (e.g. a tone, frequency shift, binary value, alarm, message, etc.)

Signalling Equipment
Tone Generator / Tone Detection, etc.

Simple Network Management Protocol - SNMP
A network management tool that is used to manage customer network equipment and processes.

One way transmission path (no response of any kind).

A private line that has one IEC leg (from one PoP to another).

The trade name for a Northern Telecom PBX system.

An end user that is PICed without their permission. An RBOC Slam Fee must be paid for each slam.

SLIP - Serial Line Internet Protocol

The process of assigning a circuit to available channel capacity across the network (during the circuit design process).

SMDR - Station Message Detail Recording

SMDS - Switched Multi-Megabit Data Services

SMS - Service Management System

SMS Complete
The date that SMS is notified to activate an 800 number.

SMS Customer Record
All information related to one 800 number, effective date and time, etc.

SMS FID - Field Identifier
Specifies the type of information needed in each field (variable) in an SMS Customer Record.

SMS Time
SMS operates on the prevailing U.S. Central Time, which is Central Standard Time (CST) in the Winter and Central Daylight Savings Time (CDT) in the summer. SMS users may enter local time by suffixing their local zone. For example: "10:00A/E" (ten A.M. Eastern time zone) is converted by SMS to "9:00A/C" (nine A.M. Central time zone).

SNA - IBM Systems Network Architecture
Mainframe-centric hierarchical communication protocol.

SNMP - Simple Network Management Protocol
A communications protocol used in the monitoring and management of communications devices and services. SNMP utilizes three basic request primitives: Set, Get, and Get-Next for configuration and performance information, and one asynchronous notification: Trap for alarm and status information. (Originally designed for TCP/IP.)

SO or S/O - Service Order
Software Quality Assurance - SQA
A formal approach to software development, automated regression testing, configuration management, versioning, profiling and release control with the goal of zero defects.

SONET - Synchronous Optical Network
A 1984 ANSI standard (developed by ECSA) for optical fiber transmission on the public network. 52Mbps to 13.22Gbps. Effective for ISDN services including ATM. (See OC - Optical Carrier SONET transport levels)

SOP - (SMS) Service Order Processor

Source Code
A collection of computer programming commands that is used to define the behaviors (processes, operations, methods, functions) of computer systems and applications.

Special Access
A class of LEC services that provides the link from the customer's premise to an IEC PoP for non-switched dedicated circuits.

Speed Dialing
A service to abbreviate and accelerate frequently dialed numbers.

SQL - Structured Query Language
The RDBMS interface language (Insert, Select, Update, Delete, etc.).

SRDM - Sub Rate Data Mux

SS7 - Signaling System 7
An addressing protocol that speeds up call processing by operating out of band. Includes fraud detection, caller ID, store and forward, ring back, concurrent data, etc.

SSP - Service Switching Point

State Tax
A collection of tax types that each state is allowed to charge. Tax jurisdiction (which state can charge tax for a call) is based on the two-out-of-three rule: where it originates, where it terminates, where it is being billed to - if two match, that state can charge the tax.

Station Line
A line between an individual extension and a PBX or key system. May also refer to an internal circuit that can be connected to a PBX switchboard.

Station Message Detail Recording
A PBX feature that provides information on the calls placed from each station line. In contrast to AIOD, it can also track local and toll-free calls.

Normal long distance phone call - billed if anyone answers. A service arrangement, other than Person-to-Person, which requires the assistance of an operator to complete the call to the designated phone number.

Status Code
Object (class or instance) state codes with an enumerated list of possible values.

(1) Synchronous Transport Signals.
(2) Serving Translations Scheme Used in translating an 800 number to a POTS or trunk group.
(3) Shared Tenant Service.

A group of similar objects that is derived from a superclass.

Part of an assembly or a system.

Subnet Address
An extension of the IP address that allows a network to be autonomous by itself and still be a subsection of a larger user network.

A grouping of similar class definitions.

Super Frame - SF
A data transmission format comprised of 12 frames of 192 bits each. A single 193rd bit is used for link control and error checking. As an industry standard, D4, also known as SF, has been superseded by the Extended Super Frame (ESF) format. However, because ESF is not backward compatible and there continues to be a large installed base of channel banks and DS-1 Multiplexers that are based upon D4, it is still the default private line formatting technique.

An additional charge on top of a base rate for a specified reason.

SVC - Switched Virtual Circuit

A device (like a DMS-250 or a PBX) that responds to originator signals and dynamically connects the caller to the desired communication destination.

Switched 56Kbps
Dial Up Digital Data Service - DDS

Switched Access
Nondedicated local access between the customer's premise and the serving wire center which is interconnected to the company's point-of-presence for origination or termination of service.

Switched Access Service
A class of LEC services that provides the link from the customer's premise to the IEC PoP for switched circuits.

Switched Circuit
A communications path that allows the originator to specify a desired destination for each call.

Switched DAL - Switched Dedicated Access (Egress) Line
Dedicated trunk group (T1, etc.) circuit(s) used to access (1+, etc.) or egress (800, etc.) through normal network switching facilities.

Switched Multi-Megabit Data Services - SMDS
A broadband communications standard for the public network that does not require predefinition of a specific path.

Switched Resellers
Resellers that utilize their own switching hardware (and sometimes their own lines) and the lines of other IXCs to provide long-distance service to its subscribers. They provide their own billing and service.

Switched Services
All dial up long-distance services including conventional residential and WATS (most have incremental use charges). (See Message Toll Service)

Switching Fee
A per-line fee (usually around 5$) imposed by the LEC to reprogram their switching system to change your default carrier. Subscribers must usually pay this fee when switching to a reseller. Some resellers will reimburse the subscribers for this fee.

Switchless Reseller
A reseller of long-distance services that does not utilize any of its own lines, or (switching) equipment. All actual service and equipment is handled by the IXC. Billing is usually done, by the reseller themselves, to the customer.

Switch Site
A location that supports dynamic communication path routing.

A form of communication transmission with a direct timing relationship between input and output signals. The transmitter and receiver are in sync and signals are sent at a fixed rate. Information is sent in multibyte packets. It is faster than asynchronous character transmission, since start and stop bits are not required. It is used for mainframe-to-mainframe and faster workstation transmission.

System Integrators
A vendor that offers design, connection, implementation and management services for diverse network resources.

- T -

(Facility) The equivalent of 24 multiplexed voice grade channels. 1.544 million bits per second (1.5Mbps)

(Facility) The equivalent of 4 multiplexed T1 channels. 6.312 million bits per second (6.3Mbps)

(Facility) The equivalent of 28 multiplexed T1 channels. 44.736 million bits per second (45Mbps)

(Facility) The equivalent of 6 multiplexed T3 channels. 274.176 million bits per second (274Mbps)

TA - Technical Advisory - Published by Bellcore.

(Relation) 2-dimensional information representation with Rows & Columns.

Tandem Office
Toll Office - Class 4 Switch. Hierarchical interconnection for Class 5 End Offices.

A public document filed with the FCC or a PUC that outlines services and rates. Usually, all customers are offered the same rate for a specific service, based on published constraints.

A government levy based on the market price of products and services that are sold.

Tax Exempt Certificate
A document that verifies tax exempt status.

Tax Identification Number
A unique identifier for business organizations that is used for reporting tax payments to the government (similar to the social security number for individuals).

TCP/IP - Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol
A data communication standard for interconnection of dissimilar networks and computing systems.

TDD - Telecommunications Device for the Deaf

Time Division Multiplexing (TDM)
A method of mixing multiple signals on a single channel by transmitting in tightly controlled time slots. Unlike packet switching, TDM does not allow resource balancing during periods of mixed high and low use of different signals.

A person familiar with installation and maintenance of systems.

Telco - Telephone Company
The local or regional telephone company that owns and operates lines to customer locations and Class 5 Central Office Switches. Telcos have connections to other COs, Tandem (Class 4 Toll) offices and may connect directly to IECs like WorldCom, AT&T, MCI, Sprint, LDDS, etc.

Live, two-way audio transmission between two or more locations. Usually includes speaker phones and microphone amplification systems that allow audio volume balancing for people at different locations from the microphone. May also be supported by the use of FAX machines, etc. (See Video Conference)

Bellcore registered trademark for Service Management System

An instrument or system used for voice communication. The process or act of communicating via such a system.

An application that provides virtual terminal services for a wide variety of remote systems. It allows a user at one site to interact with applications at other sites as if the user's terminal is local.

A pattern (e.g. a cookie cutter) used to replicate objects. (C++) A facility for creating parameterized class (type) definitions. (SMS/800) A standard pattern defined by an IXC that specifies the limits and boundaries (NPAs,LATAs, etc.) of 800 routing.

(Equipment) The equipment (multiplexer, channelizer, etc.) required to provide a connection point for one circuit. (Call 1) The destination of a switched call connection. (Call 2) The process of ending a switched call connection and the recording of the associated call details.

Test Plan
(SQA) A formal set of use case scenarios that describe normal and abnormal dialogs that must be validated before new or modified software may be released.

Theoretical Midpoint - (TMP)
The theoretical halfway point that divides an international private line circuit into its respective US and foreign halves. A US records carrier is responsible for the US portion of service and a foreign records carrier assumes responsibility for service to the foreign half.

Third Part
A product or service vendor (other than the primary vendor or customer) that supplies a necessary component of a system. (e.g. software, circuit cards, etc.)

Third Party Billing
Use of an outside service bureau for bill processing such as: call rating, customer invoicing, collections, etc.

The end result of data transmission (for a given period of time). It is a measure of the overall efficiency, quality and performance of a communications link and its software protocols.

Telecommunications and Information Infrastructure Assistance program: A grant program from the National Telecommunications and Information Administration of the United States Department of Commerce, established by Congress in fiscal year 1994 to assist non-profit organizations and units of state and local government to undertake projects which contribute to the building of a national information infrastructure.

3 seconds in a communications switch.

Tie Line
Two-way transmission circuits that typically directly connect a PBX in one location to a PBX in one location to a PBX in another. Tie lines are normally arranged for two-way calling. Calls from an extension at one location can be placed to an extension at the distant location by dialing a short access number. In most cases, this type of circuit is terminated with a four-wire analog local loop on both ends and uses MF signaling with E & M supervision. Tie lines can be used to support voice and/or data.

Time of Day
(At Communication Switch) Ticks since midnight.

Time of Day Routing
Route calls based on the time the call originates. (e.g. direct morning calls to East Coast operators and afternoon calls to West Coast operators, etc.). SMS/800 supports 15 minute time intervals.

Token Ring
An IBM LAN-based LAN protocol that uses a ring-shaped network topology. Token Ring has speeds of 4Mbps and 16Mbps. A distinguishing packet is transferred from machine to machine and only the machine that is in control of the token is able to transmit.

A rated call (Contrast CDR - unrated call detail record). Tolls appear on the Invoice Detail.

Toll Call
A call with incremental use (minute-by-minute) charges. (Often through a Class 4 Toll Office).

Toll Fraud
A crime in which a "hacker" obtains telecommunication services by: breaching computer security, using or selling stolen long-distance credit-card codes, or, accessing a PBX and using its communication facilities illegally. Toll Fraud is estimated to cost U.S. companies $1.2 billion/year.

Toll Office
Class 4 Switch - Tandem Office. Interconnection for Class 5 Switches.

Toll Rating
The process of determining the billing rate of a toll call.

TRA - Bellcore Traffic Routing Administration

Activity on a network or an individual circuit.

Traffic Engineering
The process or the organization responsible for monitoring historical network use statistics, anticipating growth trends, planning, designing and implementing network facilities.

A single business event including the associated data and the underlying processes and triggers.

Move an entity from one object relationship to another (e.g.ANI, customer, receivables, etc.)

Transmission Mode
Classification based on: (a) data flow (simplex, half duplex, full duplex), (b) Physical connection (parallel, serial), and (c) timing (asynchronous, synchronous).

Transmission System
The foundation of communication capacity between two points. It is governed by the equipment type generating the (optical) signals. The capacity of a single fiber can be increased by installing higher-speed (higher-cost) transmission systems (end-to-end).

Travel (Card) Service
A telecommunication credit card with an Authorization Code for using a long distance carrier when the customer is away from their home or office (ANI). Travel Service calls are charged to the customer to whom the AuthCode was issued.

An application-specific process invoked by a database management system as a result of a request to add, change, delete, or retrieve a data element.

Trouble Ticket
A piece of paper or a record in a computer system used to report and manage the resolution of network or circuit outages.

A (high-capacity) connection between switches. From a customer perspective, trunk may refer to an external (carrier) line connected to CPE/PBX, including local exchange lines, WATS lines and dedicated private lines. Customer trunks may be outgoing only, incoming only or two-way.

Trunk Group
A group of circuits of a common type that originate from the same location.

Trunk Member
A single circuit in a Trunk Group.

Completing the installation of a circuit and making it available to the customer that requested it.

Twisted Pair
A circuit comprised of two copper wires that are twisted to cancel their own radio frequency interference, and thus reduce noise that might otherwise be induced into adjacent circuits.

Two Out Of Three Rule
When determining state tax jurisdiction, there are three locations to consider: originating station, destination station, and the location that the bill is sent to. If two out of three are the same, then that state receives the tax.

Two-Way Conversation
A telephone conversation between or among two (or more) parties, where each party has the ability to both transmit and receive communication from the other party (or parties). (See Half Duplex, Full Duplex. Contrast with Simplex-One Way)

- U -

UAL - (SMS) User Application Layer

Universal Name Space
The set of all unique object identifiers in a domain, network, enterprise, etc. Object naming standards and methods for locating and sending messages to mobile objects are required in large-scale object-oriented distributed-computing systems.

Universal Service Order Code - USOC
A set of codes developed by the Bell System and used as a standard means of identifying service or equipment.

Insufficient information available to determine the correct rate.

UPL - (SMS) User Program Layer

US Half Circuit
A logical circuit between the US ITMC and the TMP.

User ID
A unique number or name or both that is associated with a user name on a server system.

- V -

A data communications interface standard adopted for use with circuits 56Kbps and above.

The formal process of reviewing or examining something (such as a single data element value, a requirements specification, a user interface, an implementation design, plan, schedule, budget, etc.) and certifying or confirming that is acceptable for use. The process of searching for and eliminating errors.

Value Added Network (VAN)
A communication network that provides features other than transmission of information, such as translation of one type of computer signal to another type of computer signal (protocol conversion). VAN sometimes refers to packet-switched networks with protocol conversion (dissimilar system interface capability).

Vanity Number
A specific 800 number (may spell something).

Verified Account Codes
See Account Codes. A finite list of carrier-verified, predefined Account Codes.

Provider of tax jurisdiction rate tables and related software.

VF Access - Voice Frequency Access

V H Coordinates
Vertical and Horizontal grid points used to determine straight-line mileage between locations. ( Used for mileage sensitive product pricing.)

Animated Image Transmission, Storage, Display.

Video Conference
A conference between two or more remote locations with live, animated image transmission and display. Two-way video conferencing allows both locations to see the people and presentation materials at the other location.

Levels Of Abstraction. (Relational) Tables with security authorization that may be subsets of database tables or joins of the rows and columns of multiple tables. RDBMS cannot update through views. (Object-Oriented) Objects that are a subset or aggregation of the subcomponents of one or more other objects. The underlying business object models encapsulate the data and behaviors that are used by object views. Object views send messages to the encapsulated objects to effect any required updates or to create new object instances.

Virtual Network Service (VNS)

VPN - Virtual Private Network.

Voice Grade
Narrowband. A low-capacity communications Circuit/path. It usually implies a speed of 56Kbps or less. (Contrast with Wideband and Broadband)

Voice Mail
An automatic answering service with the ability to record a message. Unlike simple answering machines, Voice mail uses a programmable computer system with options such as temporary call routing, monitoring and reporting, etc.

Voice Mail Box
The assignment of one user/number on a voice mail system.

VPN - Virtual Private Network
Switched network with special services like abbreviated dialing. A customer can call between offices in different area codes without having to dial all eleven digits.

- W -

WAIS - Wide Area Information Server
Internet public database text searching.

An override to the standard terms and conditions of a contract.

(Computer System Development) A peer review of a system design, code, etc. The goal is to identify errors as early as possible and learn from other people's experience. Managers and people who prepare performance reviews should NOT be in the room. The concept is to invite "egoless" constructive criticism and to nurture team-oriented validation and debug responsibility. (Telecommunications) 5-digit code used to access an IEC. Requires Feature Group B or D (SeeBypass,CIC Code, Casual Calling).

WAN - Wide Area Network
Remote computer communications system. WANs allow file sharing among geographically distributed workgroups (typically at higher cost and slower speed than LANs or MANs). WANs typically use common carriers' circuits and networks. WANs may serve as a customized communication "backbone" that interconnects all of an organization's local networks with communications trunks that are designed to be appropriate for anticipated communication rates and volumes between nodes.

WATS - Wide Area Telephone Service
Flat rate, or special rate pay-by-the-minute (measured) billing for a specified calling area. May be outbound or inbound (e.g. 800).

A medium-capacity communications Circuit/path. It usually implies a speed from 64Kbps to 1.544Mbps. (Contrast with Broadband and Narrowband)

Radio waves, cellular, satellite, microwave, etc.

A personal computer that may operate in a stand-alone environment, or may be part of a computer network. Workstation sometimes refers to a computing system that is more powerful than a simple personal computer.

WTN - Working Telephone Number

World Wide Web (WWW)
Internet system for world-wide hypertext linking of multimedia documents, making the relationship of information that is common between documents easily accessible and completely independent of physical location.

- X -

An international narrowband (under 56Kbps) packet switching standard. A forerunner to frame relay and ATM.

XPL - Carrier Private Line

XS - Carrier Switched

- Z -

ZBTSI (Zero Byte Time Slot Interchange)
This is used in conjunction with defintions regarding DS1 coding schemes, e.g. AMI, B8ZS, ZBTSI.

Zulu Date
The Day at Greenwich England - See Zulu Time. (Zulu Date may be ahead of the day in other time zones, such as the USA, or behind time zones such as Japan, etc.)

Zulu Time
Zulu is the military word for the letter "Z". Zulu is the abbreviation for Longitude Zero - Greenwich (England) Mean Time (GMT). Zulu Time is 6 hours later than Central Standard Time and 5 hours later than Central Daylight-Savings Time. Zulu Time (GMT) is always the same worldwide. Communication network switches are coordinated on Zulu Time.




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