Conditional Access. See CAS.
Conditional Access Module.
Conditional Access System - Common name
for the decryption system either built (embedded) into the satellite receiver or
performed via a CA-module inserted into a receivers CI Slot (Common Interface). CAS
systems are normally connected to a smart card reader to allow Pay-TV operators to control
subscriber access to encrypted signals.
Common Interface. A standard for using PCMCIA devices to
implement different features into a set-top-box. Normally 1 or 2 CI slots are available.
Example: CAM modules for Conax or Viaccess decoding.
The circular orbit at appr. 35800 km above the equator, where the satellites
travel at the same speed as the earth's rotation (Geostationary Orbit) and thus appears to
be stationary to an observer on Earth. Named after Arthur C. Clarke who first postulated
the idea of geostationary communication satellites.
Connecting cable between i.e. LNB and satellite receiver, for transmission of signals
received and for supply of power to LNB unit.
Digital coding/encryption method (See CAS).
Transmission of the present TV standard (625 lines and 50 Hz picture frequency
for a PAL signal) requires a digital data amount of 216 Mbit/s. This would require
transmission bandwidths that are not available either terrestrially or via satellite.
Therefore a reduction of the data amount is made through data reduction. In Europe MPEG-2
is the universal standard for data compression. MPEG2 is an extension of MPEG1.
Double Channel Filter
Digital Satellite Equipment Control:
A digital control signal for controlling the DiSEqC-compatible units (typically one or
more switches) of the dish over the coaxial cable.
Direct To Home - meaning single home
Digital Video Broadcasting. A digital,
universal transmission technique and standard for picture, graphics, sound and text as
well as for data of any shape and quality.
Electronic Programme Guide. A graphical
user interface generated by a digital receiver and displayed on the user's television
Physical quantity, indicates the number of cycles per second, measured in Hertz
|Unit of frequency
||Cycles per second
1 kilo Hertz
1 Mega Hertz
1 Giga Hertz
a) Satellite and LNB:
11 GHz range from 10.70 GHz to 11.70 GHz (Low Band)
12 GHz range from 11.70 GHz to 12.75 GHz (High Band)
Intermediate frequency or 1st. IF: 950 to 2150 MHz
Free To Air. Signals that are not encrypted,
and thus freely available to everyone with a Free-To-Air receiver.
See Clarke Belt
The upper part of the Ku-band downlink frequency range, from 11.7 GHz to 12.75 GHz
The frequency range from the satellite cannot be transmitted via a cable and is therefore
converted to the intermediate frequency range from 950 to 2050 MHz by the LNB. This allows
for transmission and processing in the receiver.
Integrated Receiver Decoder. An indoor
device accepting signals from at least one LNB, which recovers the original signal from
the signal delivered by the LNB. It includes a built-in decoder for reception of services
that are protected by a Conditional Access System, subject to authorisation from the
provider. A plig-in "smart card" is often used for authorisation purposes.
Used to refer to a range of frequencies that are available for use by satellite
communication systems at around 30 GHz for the uplink and 20 GHz for the downlink.
Low Noise Block Converter.
Receiving unit in the dish focus. Converts the satellite frequency range to the
intermediate frequency of the receiver.
Local Oscillator Frequency. Indicated
in MHz or GHz, depending on LNB and frequency range received. Received frequency of
receiver = transmitter frequency of satellite - LOF.
Master Antenna TeleVision.
More household receiving signals from a master antenna.
Masthead F-connector Amplifier
Masthead F-connector Combiner
Modulation with 22 KHz
When using universal LNBs: For switching from Low Band to High Band (11.70
GHz to 12.75 GHz).
Output terminal on the satellite receiver or video tape recorder, for connection to the TV
by means of an aerial cable.
Outdoor unit consisting of a dish and several LNBs for reception of more than
A method for quantifying the electrical noise generated by a particular device. The noise
figure is the ratio of the noise power at the output of a device to the noise power at the
input of the device. Usually expressed in dB.
Over The Air. This normally indicates that an
STB supports download of a new software version via 'over-the-air' transmission (satellite
or terrestrial). (As opposed to upgrade via an RS232 and a PC)
A designation for the equipment mounted outside, i.e. consisting of satellite dish/offset
dish and one or more LNBs for reception of signals from one or more satellites,
and DiSEqC switches, if any.
A unit supplying power to electrical devices.
Some electrical devices i.e. LNBs are powered through the coaxial cable to which the
receiver supplies a voltage of 14 or 18 Volt.
For better utilisation of the available frequency bands the satellites transmit adjecent
programmes, with opposite polarisation (horizontal and vertical or circular left or
circular right). Reception of both types of polarisation requires two single LNBs or a
V/H-LNB (Universal LNB).
See Power supply.
quadrature phase shift keying
QPSK is a digital frequency modulation technique used for sending data via satellite.
See satellite receiver
A designation for the transmitting unit in space. Most often referred to by name and
position, e.g. ASTRA 19° East, EUTELSAT 13° East
A dish-shaped antenna (reflector) made of metal or metallised synthetic material for
bunching of electromagnetic waves from the satellite into a focus.
The signals received and converted by the LNB cannot be processed by the TV. The satellite
receiver processes them, and transmits audio and video signals (AV) to the TV through its
Single Channel Amplifier
A connector on TV sets, VCRs, satellite receivers and other entertainment equipment for
transmission of audio (sound) and video (picture) signals (AV).
Single Channel Filter
Single Channel Stopfilter
Smart Card Reader
A device that allows insertion of a Pay-TV subscription smart card to allow access to the
encrypted services on a Pay-TV operator. Also requires the corresponding CAS to be
Satellite Master Antenna Television. More households receiving satellite signals from a
master satellite antenna.
Set-top-box. A box to 'set on top of
your TV-set'. A common term for a satellite-, cable- or terrestrial receiver.
Triax Compact Cabinet
Triax Compact Head-end
Triax Masthead Amplifier
Triax Masthead Combiner
Triax Multi Switch
Carries out the processing of one or more programmes from a satellite, i.e. reception of
data from earth station, amplification and radiation/transmission back to earth.
A designation for a three-band LNB. For reception of the ranges FFS (10.70 -11.70 GHz),
BBS (11.70 - 12.50 GHz) and FFS High Band (12.50 - 12.75 GHz). The total range is divided
into two bands:
Low Band: 10.70 - 11.70 GHz; LOF 9750 MHz
High Band: 11.70 - 12.75 GHz; LOF 10600 MHz
Digital coding/encryption method (See CAS).